Share This Article:

Characteristics of Soil Organic Carbon, Total Nitrogen, and C/N Ratio in Chinese Apple Orchards

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:256KB) PP. 213-217
DOI: 10.4236/ojss.2013.35025    5,612 Downloads   9,642 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Soil organic carbon and nitrogen are used as indexes of soil quality assessment and sustainable land use management. At the same time, soil C/N ratio is a sensitive indicator of soil quality and for assessing the carbon and nitrogen nutrition balance of soils. We studied the characteristics of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen by investigating a large number of apple orchards in major apple production areas in China. High apple orchard soil organic carbon content was observed in the provinces of Heilongjiang, Xinjiang, and Yunnan, whereas low content was found in the provinces of Shandong, Henan, Hebei, and Shaanxi, with the values ranging between 6.44 and 7.76 g·kg-1. Similar to soil organic carbon, soil total nitrogen content also exhibited obvious differences in the 12 major apple producing provinces. Shandong apple orchard soil had the highest total nitrogen content (1.26 g·kg-1), followed by Beijing (1.23 g·kg-1). No significant difference was noted between these two regions, but their total nitrogen content was significantly higher than the other nine provinces, excluding Yunnan. The soil total nitrogen content for Xinjiang, Heilongjiang, Hebei, Henan, and Gansu was between 0.87 and 1.03 g·kg-1, which was significantly lower than that in Shandong and Beijing, but significantly higher than that in Liaoning, Shanxi, and Shaanxi. Six provinces exhibited apple orchard soil C/N ratio higher than 10, including Heilongjiang (15.42), Xinjiang (13.38), Ningxia (14.45), Liaoning (12.24), Yunnan (11.03), and Gansu (10.63). The soil C/N ratio was below 10 in the remaining six provinces, in which the highest was found in Shaanxi (9.47), followed by Beijing (8.98), Henan (7.99), and Shanxi (7.62), and the lowest was found in Hebei (6.80) and Shandong (6.05). Therefore, the improvement of soil organic carbon should be given more attention to increase the steady growth of soil C/N ratio.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

S. Ge, H. Xu, M. Ji and Y. Jiang, "Characteristics of Soil Organic Carbon, Total Nitrogen, and C/N Ratio in Chinese Apple Orchards," Open Journal of Soil Science, Vol. 3 No. 5, 2013, pp. 213-217. doi: 10.4236/ojss.2013.35025.

References

[1] Chinese Ministry of Agriculture, “China’s Agricultural Yearbook, 2010,” Chinese Agriculture Press, Beijing, 2010.
[2] D. Q. Lv, Y. A. Tong, B. H. Sun and O. Emteryd, “Study on Effect of Nitrogen Fertilizer Use on Environment Pollution,” Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer Science, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1998, pp. 8-15.
[3] J. Galantini and R. Rosell, “Long-term Fertilization Effects on Soil Organic Matter Quality and Dynamics under Different Production Systems in Semiarid Pampean Soils,” Soil and Tillage Research, Vol. 87, No. 1, 2006, pp. 72-79. doi:10.1016/j.still.2005.02.032
[4] I. Vogeler, J. Rogasik, U. Funder, K. Panten and E. Schnug, “Effect of Tillage Systems and P-Fertilization on Soil Physical and Chemical Properties, Crop Yield and Nutrient Uptake,” Soil and Tillage Research, Vol. 103, No. 1, 2009, pp. 137-143. doi:10.1016/j.still.2008.10.004
[5] P. P. Motavalli and R. J. Miles, “Soil Phosphorus Fractions after 111 Years of Animal Manure and Fertilizer Application,” Biology and Fertility of Soils, Vol. 36, 2002, pp. 35-42. doi:10.1007/s00374-002-0500-6
[6] W. L. Zhang, Z. X. Tian, N. Zhang and X. Q. Li, “Investigation of Nitrate Pollution in Ground Water Due to Nitrogen Fertilization in Agriculture in North China,” Plant Nutrition and Fertilizer Science, Vol. 1, No. 2, 1995, pp. 80-871.
[7] M. Liu, Z. P. Li, T. L. Zhang, C. Y. Jiang and Y. P. Che, “Discrepancy in Response of Rice Yield and Soil Fertility to Long-Term Chemical Fertilization and Organic Amendments in Paddy Soils Cultivated from Infertile Upland in Subtropical China,” Agricultural Sciences in China, Vol. 10, No. 2, 2011, pp. 259-266. doi:10.1016/S1671-2927(11)60003-5
[8] Y. Jiang, Q. L. Zhuang and W. J. Liang, “Soil Organic Carbon Pool and Its Affecting Factors in Farm Land Ecosystem,” Chinese Journal of Ecology, Vol. 26, No. 2, 2007, pp. 278-285.
[9] Y. Y. Sui, X. Y. Zhang, X. G. Jiao, Q. C. Wang and J. Zhao, “Effect of Longterm Different Fertilizer Applications on Organic Matter and Nitrogen of Black Farmland,” Journal of Soil and Water Conservation, Vol. 19, No. 6, 2005, pp. 190-192, 200.
[10] C. H. Zhang, Z. M. Wang, W. M. Ju and C. Y. Ren, “Spatial and Temporal Variability of Soil C/N Ratio in Songnen Plain Maize Belt,” Environmental Science, Vol. 32, No. 5, 2011, pp. 1407-1414.
[11] Z. Y. Zhao, G. R. Feng, L. C. Wang, Z. L. Wang and W. G. Zhou, “The Strategic Thinkings on the Concentrating Apple Industry in The superior District of China,” Acta Agriculturae Boreali-occidentalis Sinica, Vol. 13, No. 4, 2004, pp. 195-199.
[12] H. Eswaran, E. vander Berg and P. Reich, “Organic Carbon in Soils of the World,” Journal of Soil Science Society of America, Vol. 57, No. 1, 1993, pp. 192-194.
doi:10.2136/sssaj1993.03615995005700010034x
[13] H. B. Wu, Z. T. Guo and C. H. Peng, “Changes in Terrestrial Carbon Storage with Global Climate Changes since the Last Interglacial,” Quaternatry Scicences, Vol. 21, No. 4, 2001, pp. 366-376.
[14] S. Goyal, K. Chander, M. C. Mundra and K. K. Kapoor, “Influence of Inorganic Fertilizers and Organic Amendments on Soil Organic Matter and Soil Microbial Properties under Tropical Conditions,” Biology and Fertility of Soils, Vol. 29, No. 2, 1999, pp. 196-200. doi:10.1007/s003740050544
[15] W. J. Zhang, X. J. Wang, M. G. Xu, S. M. Huang, H. Liu and C. Peng, “Soil Organic Carbon Dynamics under LongTerm Fertilizations in Arable Land of Northern China,” Biogeosciences, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2010, pp. 409-425. doi:10.5194/bg-7-409-2010
[16] D. K. Benbi, C. R. Biswas and J. S. Kalkat, “Nitrate Distribution and Accumulation in an Ustochrept Soil Profile in a Long Term Fertilizer Experiment,” Fertilizer Research, Vol. 28, No. 2, 1991, pp. 173-177. doi:10.1007/BF01049747
[17] Q. R. Huang, F. Hu, S. Huang, H. X. Li, Y. H. Yuan, G. X. Pan and W. J. Zhang, “Effect of Long-Term Fertilization on Organic Carbon and Nitrogen in a Subtropical Paddy Soil,” Pedosphere, Vol. 19, No. 6, 2009, pp. 727734. doi:10.1016/S1002-0160(09)60168-5
[18] W. H. Schlesinger and J. Lichter, “Limited Carbon Storage in Soil and Litter of Experimental Forest Plots under Increased Atmospheric CO2,” Nature, Vol. 411, No. 6836, 2001, pp. 466-468. doi:10.1038/35078060
[19] S. Gunther and K. Holger, “Bulk Soil C to N Ratio as a Simple Measure of Net N Mineralization from Stabilized Soil Organic Matter in Sandy Arable Soils,” Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Vol. 35, No. 4, 2003, pp. 629-632. doi:10.1016/S0038-0717(03)00052-X

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.