Share This Article:

The Spatial Variability and Temporal Dynamics of Soil Properties as Affected by Visitors’ Pressure in an Urban Park

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:317KB) PP. 52-64
DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.48A2007    3,270 Downloads   4,612 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Soil properties and their tempo-spatial heterogeneity, affected by visitors’ pressure, season and soil depth, were studied in an urban park in Tel-Aviv. Soil was sampled twice yearly in wet and dry seasons. In each season soil was sampled from areas exposed to differing levels of visitors’ pressure (VP), and designated “no VP (Control)”, “High VP” and “Low VP”. The soil samples were taken from two depths. For each soil sample, moisture, organic matter and soluble-ion contents, pH, and electrical conductivity were determined. It was found that different properties were differently affected by VP, seasonal dynamics and soil depth: organic matter content, penetration depth and sodium concentration were the most sensitive to VP; Soil moisture did not respond to VP, but sharply reflected seasonal changes; Calcium and organic matter contents were significantly affected by the soil depth. The sensitivity of soil properties to VP increased from March to July, and the upper soil layer was more sensitive to seasonal dynamics and VP than the deeper layer. Some soil properties exhibited “spotty” patterns; others a “frontal” one. Organic matter content was completely controlled by VP at both depths and in both seasons, and could be used as an indicator of soil status in recreation areas. Visitors activities included trampling and other anthropogenic factors that enhanced the spatial changes and seasonal dynamics of soil properties. Based on these measurements the intensity of soil degradation and dynamics was evaluated and used to describe the soil status in an urban park.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

H. Zhevelev, P. Sarah and A. Oz, "The Spatial Variability and Temporal Dynamics of Soil Properties as Affected by Visitors’ Pressure in an Urban Park," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 4 No. 8B, 2013, pp. 52-64. doi: 10.4236/jep.2013.48A2007.

References

[1] A. Chiesura, “The Role of Urban Parks for the Sustainable City,” Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 68, No. 1, 2004, pp. 129-138. doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2003.08.003
[2] C. Y. Jim and W. Y. Chen, “Recreation-Amenity Use and Contingent Valuation of Urban Green Spaces in Guangzhou, China,” Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 75, No. 1-2, 2006, pp. 81-96. doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2004.08.008
[3] H. Sukopp, “Human-Caused Impact on Preserved Vegetation,” Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 68, No. 4, 2004, pp. 347-355. doi:10.1016/S0169-2046(03)00152-X
[4] M. J. McDonnell and S. T. A. Pickett, “Ecosystem Structure and Function along Urban-Rural Gradients: An Unexploited Opportunity for Ecology,” Ecology, Vol. 71, No. 4, 1990, pp. 1232-1237. doi:10.2307/1938259
[5] W. R. Effland and R. V. Pouyat, “The Genesis, Classification, and Mapping of Soil in Urban Areas,” Urban Ecosystems, Vol. 1, No. 4, 1997, pp. 217-228. doi:10.1023/A:1018535813797
[6] R. Pouyat, P. Groffman, I. Yesilonis and L. Hernandez, “Soil Carbon Pools and Fluxes in Urban Ecosystems,” Environmental Pollution, Vol. 116, No. 1, 2002, pp. S107-S118. doi:10.1016/S0269-7491(01)00263-9
[7] B. C. Scharenbroch, J. E. Lloyd and J. L. Johnson-Maynard, “Distinguishing Urban Soils With Physical, Chemical and Biological Properties,” Pedobiologia, Vol. 49, No. 1, 2005, pp. 283-296. doi:10.1016/j.pedobi.2004.12.002
[8] W.-X., Zhu and M. M. Carriero, “Chemoautotrophic Nitrification in Acidic Forest Soils along an Urban to Rural Transect,” Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Vol. 31, No. 8, 1999, pp. 1091-1100. doi:10.1016/S0038-0717(99)00025-5
[9] H. P. Blume, “Characteristics of Urban Soils,” Publication of German National Committee of UNESCO Program “Man and Biosphere”, Vol. 30, Berlin, 1989, pp. 23-46.
[10] U. Schleus, W. Qinglan and H. P. Blume, “Variability of Soils in Urban and Periurban Areas in Northen Germany,” Catena, Vol. 33, No. 3-4, 1998, pp. 255-270. doi:10.1016/S0341-8162(98)00070-8
[11] E. M. Zheveleva, M. E. Ignatjeva and D. N. Kavtaradze, “Soil and the Problem of Urban Plant Community Formation in the ‘Ecopolis’, Town Poushchino, Moscow Region,” Publication of German National Committee of UNESCO Program “Man and Biosphere”, Vol. 30, Berlin, 1989, pp. 47-57.
[12] M. Andres-Abellan, J. B. Del Alamo, T. Landete-Castillejos, F. R. Lopez-Serrano, F. A. Garcia-Morote and A. Del Cerro-Barja, “Impact of Visitors on Soil and Vegetation of the Recreational Area ‘Nachimiento Del Rio Mundo’ (Castilla-La Mancha, Spain),” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 101, 2005, pp. 55-67.
[13] C. Y. Jim, “Trampling Impacts of Recreationists on Picnic Sites in a Hong Kong Country Park,” Environmental Conservation, Vol. 14, No. 2, 1987, pp. 117-127. doi:10.1017/S0376892900011462
[14] C. Y. Jim, “Soil Characteristics and Management in Urban Park in Hong Kong,” Environmental Management, Vol. 22, No. 5, 1998, pp. 683-695. doi:10.1007/s002679900139
[15] P. Kutiel and H. Zhevelev, “Recreational Use Impact on Soil and Vegetation at Picnic Sites in Aleppo Pine Forest on Mt. Carmel. Israel,” Israel Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 49, No. 1, 2001, pp. 49-56. doi:10.1560/G2L1-8U80-5XNQ-G38C
[16] A. D. Dotzenko, N. T. Papamichos and D. S. Romine, “Effect of Recreational Use on Soil Moisture Conditions in Rocky Mountain National Park,” Journal of Soil Water Conservation, Vol. 22, 1967, pp. 196-197.
[17] P. Kutiel, H. Zhevelev and H. Lavee, “Coastal Dune Ecosystems: Management for Conservation Objective. III. Soil Response to Three Vegetation Types to Recreational Use,” Journal of Mediterranean Ecology, Vol. 1, 2000, pp. 171-179.
[18] E. I. Alexandrovskaya and A. L. Alexandrovskiy, “History of the Cultural Layer in Moscow and Accumulation of Anthropogenic Substances in it,” Catena, Vol. 41, No. 1-3, 2000, pp 249-259. doi:10.1016/S0341-8162(00)00107-7
[19] H. Sukopp, H. P. Blume and W. Kunick, “The Soil, Flora and Vegetation of Berlin’s Waste Lands,” In: I. C. Laurie, Ed., Nature in Cities, Chichester, New York, 1979, pp. 115-131.
[20] F. R. Kuss, “A Review of Major Factors Influencing Plant Responses to Recreation Impacts,” Environmental Management, Vol. 10, No. 5, 1986, pp. 637-650. doi:10.1007/BF01866768
[21] C. Y. Jim, “Soil Compaction as a Constraint to Tree Growth in Tropical and Subtropical Urban Habitats,” Environmental Conservation, Vol. 20, No. 1, 1993, pp. 35-49. doi:10.1017/S0376892900037206
[22] M. J. Liddle and P. Greig-Smith, “A Survey of Tracks and Paths in a Sand Dune Ecosystem. I. Soils,” Journal of Applied Ecology, Vol. 12, No. 3, 1975, pp. 893-908. doi:10.2307/2402097
[23] J. L. Marion and D. N. Cole, “Spatial and Temporal Variation in Soil and Vegetation Impacts on Campsites,” Ecological Applications, Vol. 6, No. 2, 1996, pp. 520-530. doi:10.2307/2269388
[24] L. Beyer, P. Kahle, H. Kretschmer and Q. Wu, “Soil Organic Matter Composition of Man-Impacted Urban Sites in North Germany,” Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, Vol. 164, No. 4, 2001, pp. 359-364.
[25] K. Lorenz and E. Kandeler, “Biochemical Characterization of Urban Soil Profiles from Stuttgart, Germany,” Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Vol. 37, No. 7, 2005, pp. 1373-1385. doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2004.12.009
[26] Y.-G. Zhao, G.-L. Zhang, H. Zepp and J.-L. Yang, “Establishing a Spatial Grouping Base for Surface Soil Properties Along Urban-Rural Gradient—A Case Study in Nanjing, China,” Catena, Vol. 69, No. 1, 2007, pp. 74-81. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2006.04.017
[27] H. M. Zhevelev and P. Sarah, “The Effect of Visitors’ Pressure on the Spatial Variability of Sandy Soil in an Urban Park in Tel-Aviv,” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Vol. 142, No. 1-3, 2008, pp. 35-46. doi:10.1007/s10661-007-9906-9
[28] H. Koyumdjisky, J. Dan, S. Soriano and S. Nisim, “Selected Soils Profiles from Israeli Soils. ARO,” The Volcani Centre, Bet Dagan, 1988.
[29] D. L. Rowell, “Soil Science: Methods and Application,” Longman Scientific and Technical, New York, 1994.
[30] L. O. Karpachevsky, A. D. Voronin, E. A. Demitriev, M. N. Stroganova and S. A. Shoba, “Soil and Biogeocenological Research in Forest Ecosystems,” Moscow State University, Moscow, 1980.
[31] P. Sarah and H. M. Zhevelev, “Effect of Visitors’ Pressure on Soil and Vegetation in Several Different Micro-Environments in Urban Parks,” Landscape and Urban Planning, 83, Vol. 83, No. 4, 2007, pp. 284-293. doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2007.05.001
[32] K. Lorenz, C. M. Preston and E. Kandeler, “Soil Organic Matter in Urban Soils: Estimation of Elemental Carbon by Thermal Oxidation and Characterization of Organic Matter by Solid-State 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy,” Geoderma, Vol. 130, No. 3-4, 2006, pp. 312-323. doi:10.1016/j.geoderma.2005.02.004
[33] S. Zwikel, H. Lavee and P. Sarah, “Temporal Evolution of Salts in Mediterranean Soils Transect Under Different Climatic Condition,” Catena, Vol. 70, No. 3, 2007, pp. 282-295. doi:10.1016/j.catena.2006.09.004
[34] P. Sarah, “Soluble Salts Dynamics in the Soil under Different Climatic Conditions,” Catena, Vol. 43, No. 4, 2001, pp. 307-321. doi:10.1016/S0341-8162(00)00130-2
[35] D. R. Bhuju and M. Ohsawa, “Effects of Nature Trails on Ground Vegetation and Understory Colonization of a Patchy Remnant Forest in an Urban Domain,” Biological Conservation, Vol. 85, No. 1-2, 1998, pp. 123-135. doi:10.1016/S0006-3207(97)00148-1

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.