Share This Article:

Water budgets for freshwater aquaculture ponds with reference to effluent volume

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:319KB) PP. 353-359
DOI: 10.4236/as.2013.48051    5,357 Downloads   7,913 Views   Citations


This paper presents the consumptive water use for freshwater pond aquaculture for semi-intensive carps farming practices. The consumptive use of water includes evaporation loss, seepage loss and water exchanges requirements. The water requirement has been estimated to be10.3 m3/Kg of fish production under present study for semi-intensive culture and with supplemental feeding. Out of which7.6 m3/Kg of fish production is system associated requirement. On an average the evaporation loss from the pond is1498.3 mm/year and seepage loss per year is about1182.60 mm/year. Seepage and water exchange losses recharge the ground water aquifers and if they are treated and recycled, the water use in aquaculture can be reduced significantly. A further reduction in fresh water use in pond aquaculture is possible through development of intensive and superintensive culture systems and aqua feeds.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Sharma, K. , Mohapatra, B. , Das, P. , Sarkar, B. and Chand, S. (2013) Water budgets for freshwater aquaculture ponds with reference to effluent volume. Agricultural Sciences, 4, 353-359. doi: 10.4236/as.2013.48051.


[1] FAO (2005) Aquaculture production, 2003. Yearbook of Fishery Statistics, Vol.96/2, Food and Agriculture organization of the United Nations, Rome.
[2] Tripathi, S.D. (2003) Inland Fisheries in India. Fish for All National Launch, 18-19 December.
[3] Boyd, C.E. (1982) Hydrology of small experimental fishponds at auburn, Alabama. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society, 111, 638-44. doi:10.1577/1548-8659(1982)111<638:HOSEFP>2.0.CO;2
[4] Boyd, C.E. (1986) Influence of evaporation excess on water requirements for fish farming. Proceeding of the Conference on Climatic and Water Management, American Meteorological Society, Boston, 62-64.
[5] Teichert-Coddington, D.R., Stone, N. and Phelps, R.P., (1988) Hydrology of fish culture ponds in Gualaca, Panama. Aquacultural Engineering, 7, 309-320. doi:10.1016/0144-8609(88)90013-1
[6] Baetholomew, W. Green and Boyd, C.E. (1995) Water budgets for fish ponds in the dry tropics. Aquacultural Engineering, 14, 347-356. doi:10.1016/0144-8609(95)00002-V
[7] Nath, S.S. and Bolte, J.P. (1998) A water budget model for pond aquaculture. Aquacultural Engineering, 18, 175-188. doi:10.1016/S0144-8609(98)00029-6
[8] Mohanty, B.B., Mal, B.C., Sharmaand, K.K. and Mohapatra, B.C. (2009) Water requirements of a portable FRP carp hatchery for Rohu spawning and eggs hatching. Fishing Chimes, 29.
[9] Kathpalia, G. (1991) Water budgeting and planning. Water pollution and management, edited by C. K. Varshney, 25-35.
[10] Verdegem, M.C.J., Bosma, R.H. and Berreth, J.A.J. (2006) Reducing water use for animal production through aquaculture. International Journal of Water Resource Development, 22.
[11] United States Soil Conservation Service (1971) Ponds for water supply and recreation. United States Department of Agriculture, Agriculture Handbook 387.
[12] Verdegem, M.C.J. and Bosma, R.H. (2009) Water withdrawal for brackish and inland aquaculture, and options to produce more fish in ponds with present water use. Water Policy, 11, 52-68.
[13] Ayyappan, S. (2006) National aquaculture sector overview: India. National Aquaculture Sector Overview Fact Sheets, FAO, Rome.
[14] Irrigation Commission, Ministry Of Irrigation and Power, Government of India (1972) Report of the Irrigation Commission.
[15] Michael, A.M. (1997) Irrigation: Theory and practices. Vikas Publishing House Pvt Ltd, Delhi.
[16] Jayanthi, M., Rekha, P.N., Muralidhar, M. and Gupta, B.P. (2004) Seepage reduction in brackish water ponds with different materials. Ecology, Environment and Conservation, 10, 257-260.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.