Share This Article:

A Study of Smog Issues and PM2.5 Pollutant Control Strategies in China

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:274KB) PP. 746-752
DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.47086    7,981 Downloads   14,131 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

The increased occurrence of smoggy days in major Chinese cities is of major concern to the general public. This paper explores the major sources of PM2.5 pollutants, a key contributor to the smog in Beijing, one of China’s largest cities. Evidence indicates that the secondary PM2.5 particles formed through NOx, SOx, NH3, VOCs, etc. have a strong impact on human health. As a result, PM2.5 pollution control should not simply focus on controlling particulate emission, but should involve adopting an integrated multi-pollutant control strategy. In addition to identifying the major sources of PM2.5, this paper explores its impact on environmental and human health. Although the intention of this research is not to provide solutions for reducing PM2.5 pollution, the paper analyzes the United States’ experience with establishing PM2.5 standards and mandates. Specifically, this paper focuses on the air quality control strategies adopted in California since the 1940s and draws parallels with present-day China. The research suggests that adequate government regulation, public awareness, regional collaboration and industrial compliance are keys to successfully controlling PM2.5 pollution.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

D. Hu and J. Jiang, "A Study of Smog Issues and PM2.5 Pollutant Control Strategies in China," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 4 No. 7, 2013, pp. 746-752. doi: 10.4236/jep.2013.47086.

References

[1] Y. Li, “Smog Weather, Be Aware of PM2.5 Pollution,” Food & Health (Chinese), 2012, pp. 9-11.
[2] S. Liu, “Why China, US Argue over PM2.5 Data,” 2012. http://www.china.org.cn/opinion/2012-06/08/content_25598211.htm
[3] H. Li, B. Bai and L. Cheng, “Beijing Experienced 124 Days in 2012, the Highest in Last 10 Years,” Legal Evening News (Chinese), 14 January 2013.
[4] Y. Ye, “Study of Decreasing PM2.5 Emission from Thermal Power Plant,” Electric Power Construction, Vol. 33, No. 2, 2012, pp. 49-52.
[5] H. Ji, H. Zhao, S. Kong, Z. Bai and B. Han, “Seasonal Variation of Inorganic Composition in Ambient Particulate Matter in Tianjin Offshore Area and Its Source Analysis,” China Environmental Science, Vol. 31, No. 2, pp. 177-185.
[6] S. Wang and J. Hao, “Air Quality Management in China: Issues, Challenges, and Options,” Journal of Environmental Sciences, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2012, pp. 2-13. doi:10.1016/S1001-0742(11)60724-9
[7] Q. Luo, “ 25 Smoggy Days Occurred in January 2013,” Beijing Daily, 1 Februry 2013
[8] Z. Bai, B. Wang and S. Du, “Status of PM2.5 Pollution in China,” Environmental-China Newspaper, 21 February 2012.
[9] B. D. Keim, L. D. Meeker and J. F. Slater), “Manual Synoptic Climate Classification for the East Coast of New England (USA) with an Application to PM2.5 Concentration,” Climate Research, Vol. 28, 2005, pp. 143-154. doi:10.3354/cr028143
[10] Xinhua News, “Beijing Population Tops 20.69 Million”, 2013. http://www.china.org.cn/china/2013-01/21/content_27747807.htm
[11] J. Gong and Z. Cui, “ China Goes to War on PM2.5,” 2012. http://english.caixin.com/2012-02-27/100361100.html
[12] D. Li, P. Qi and X. Huang, “The Preliminary Discussion of Preventive Countermeasures on Airborne Fine Particles PM2.5,” Contaminations Control and Air Conditioning Technology, Vol. 4, 2005, pp. 34-36.
[13] AP News, “Japan Seeks Cooperation with China on Smog Problem,” Gulf News, 9 February, 2013.
[14] Case Study, “Comparison of the EU and US Approaches Towards Control of Particulate Matter,” 2005. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/archives/cafe/activities/pdf/case_study4.pdf
[15] Y. Li, “Construction Dust Accounted for 15.8% of PM2.5 Particles, Beijing Authority Reinforce Construction Waste Management,” 2013. http://www.bj.xinhuanet.com/bjpd_sdzx/2012-02/20/content_24742145.htm
[16] Y. Huang, S. Fan, J. Qin, B. Yan, G. Li and G. Tian, “Study of Pollution from Deconstruction of Residential and Commercial Buildings,” Technology Development for Beijing’s Green Olympic Environmental Protection, 2006, pp. 1-7.
[17] T. Zhang, “China’s Cement Industry Suffers from Overcapacity,” 2013. http://english.cntv.cn/program/bizasia/20130130/103129.shtml
[18] S. Feng and Z. Wang, “Cement Industry, From Expansion to Merger,” 21st Century Economic Report, 2011.
[19] M. L. Bell and D. L. Davis, “Reassessment of the Lethal London Fog of 1952: Novel Indicators of Acute and Chronic Consequences of Acute Exposure to Air Pollution,” Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 109, Suppl. 3, 2001, pp. 389-394.
[20] M. Fu, F. Zheng, X. Xu and L. Niu, “Advances of Study on Monitoring and Evaluation of PM2.5 Pollution,” Meteorology and Disaster Reduction research, Vol. 34, No. 4, 2011, pp. 1-6.
[21] “Study on Premature Deaths Reveals Health Impact of PM2.5 in China,” 2012. http://www.greenpeace.org/eastasia/press/releases/climate-energy/2012/air-pollution-health-economic/
[22] Research Report, “Economic Analysis on Implementation of PM2.5 Standard,” Institute of Environmental and Economic Research, Beijing University, Beijing, 2011.
[23] US EPA, “National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter: Proposed Decision,” Federal Register, Vol. 61, No. 241, 1996.
[24] Final Report, “Regulatory Impact Analysis for the Final Revisions to the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter,” 2012.
[25] US EPA’s Technology Transfer Network, “National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS),” 2013. http://www.epa.gov/ttn/naaqs/standards/pm/s_pm_index.html
[26] California Environmental Protection Agency, “Air Resources Board.” http://www.arb.ca.gov/homepage.htm
[27] Z. Chen, “74 Chinese Cities Release Real-Time PM2.5 Data,” 2013. http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/china/2013-01/01/c_132075595.htm
[28] D. Evarts, “Regional Approaches for Improving Air Quality,” Second US-China NOx and SO2 Control Workshop, Dalian, 2005.
[29] J. Hao, “Air Pollution Control Strategy in China,” Tsinghua University Report, 2008. http://www.landecon.cam.ac.uk/research/eeprg/cleed/pdf/HAO%20Jiming_Air.pdf
[30] S. Yu, R. Mathur, K. Schere, D. Kang, J. Pleim, J. Young, D. Tong, G. Pouliot, S. A. McKeen and S. T. Rao, “Evaluation of Real-Time PM2.5 Forecasts and Process Analysis for PM2.5 Formation over the Eastern United States Using the Eta-CMAQ Forecast Model during the 2004 ICARTT Study,” Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 113, No. D6, 2008, pp. 1-20. doi:10.1029/2007JD009226

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.