Share This Article:

A Study of the Yesilirmak River Catchment in Northern Turkey: Spatial Patterns and Temporal Trends in Water Quality

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:1646KB) PP. 104-120
DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.47A013    3,816 Downloads   5,893 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

This paper presents a comprehensive study of spatial and temporal patterns of water chemistry (1995-2008) in the Yesilirmak River catchment in Northern Turkey. Biological oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO) and nutrient concentrations (nitrogen and phosphorus) are variable across the catchment because the upland areas are relatively undisturbed, and the lower catchment is dominated by urban, industrial and agricultural inputs. Seasonally, high nutrient concentrations occur in winter possibly due to flushing from the soil zone. Low summer flow and reduced dilution lead to high orthophosphate concentrations. However, denitrification seems to be more significant than dilution processes and this generates low nitrate concentrations in summer. Nutrient levels since 1995 do not show a significant upward trend. The current water quality status indicates that the river system is in poor condition. The majority of sites fall in the Turkish water classification class II-III and more than half fail the EU standards because of high nutrient concentrations. In order to improve the status of water quality to achieve good chemical and ecological status, there is clearly a need to improve pollution control within the river system by installing waste water treatment plants, while keeping the agricultural pollution to a minimum in the system.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

L. Jin, P. Whitehead and M. Hadjikakou, "A Study of the Yesilirmak River Catchment in Northern Turkey: Spatial Patterns and Temporal Trends in Water Quality," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 4 No. 7A, 2013, pp. 104-120. doi: 10.4236/jep.2013.47A013.

References

[1] R. C. Ferrier, A. C. Edwards, D. Hirst, I. G. Littlewood, C. D. Watts and R. Morris, “Water Quality of Scottish Rivers: Spatial and Temporal Trends,” Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 265, No. 1-3, 2001, pp. 327-342. doi:10.1016/S0048-9697(00)00674-4
[2] C. Neal, H. P. Jarvie, A. Love, M. Neal, H. Wickham and S. Harman, “Water Quality along a River Continuum Subject to Point and Diffuse Sources,” Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 350, No. 3-4, 2008, pp. 154-165. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2007.10.034
[3] T. V. Royer, M. B. David and L. E. Gentry, “Timing of Riverine Export of Nitrate and Phosphorus from Agricultural Watersheds in ILLINOIS: Implications for Reducing Nutrient Loading to the Mississippi River,” Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 40, No. 13, 2006, pp. 4126-4131. doi:10.1021/es052573n
[4] P. J. A. Withers and E. I. Lord, “Agricultural Nutrient Inputs to Rivers and Groundwaters in the UK: Policy, Environmental Management and research Needs,” Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 282, No. 1, 2002, pp. 9-24. doi:10.1016/S0048-9697(01)00935-4
[5] H. P. Jarvie, C. Neal and P. J. A. Withers, “Sewage-Effluent Phosphorus: A Greater Risk to River Eutrophication than Agricultural Phosphorus?” Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 360, No. 1-3, 2006, pp. 246-253. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2005.08.038
[6] C. Neal, H. P. Jarvie, M. Neal, A. J. Love, L. Hill and H. Wickham, “Water Quality of Treated Sewage Effluent in a Rural Area of the Upper Thames Basin, Southern England, and the Impacts of Such Effluents on Riverine Phosphorus Concentrations,” Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 304, No. 1-4, 2005, pp. 103-117. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2004.07.025
[7] C. Neal, H. P. Jarvie, R. J. Williams, M. Neal, H. Wickham and L. Hill, “Phosphorus-Calcium Carbonate Saturation Relationships in a Lowland Chalk River Impacted by Sewage Inputs and Phosphorus Remediation: An Assessment of Phosphorus Self-Cleansing Mechanisms in Natural Waters,” Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 282, 2002, pp. 295-310. doi:10.1016/S0048-9697(01)00920-2
[8] P. G. Whitehead, P. J. Johnes and D. Butterfield, “Steady state and Dynamic Modelling of Nitrogen in the River Kennet: Impacts of Land Use Change Since the 1930s,” Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 282, 2002, pp. 417-434. doi:10.1016/S0048-9697(01)00927-5
[9] A. L. Heathwaite, “Multiple Stressors on Water Availability at Global to Catchment Scales: Understanding Human Impact on Nutrient Cycles to Protect Water Quality and Water Availability in the Long Term,” Freshwater Biology, Vol. 55, No. S1, 55, 2010, pp. 241-257. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2427.2009.02368.x
[10] P. Quevauviller, “Adapting to Climate Change: Reducing Water-Related Risks in Europe—EU Policy and Research Considerations,” Environmental Science and Policy, Vol. 14, No. 7, 2011, pp. 722-729. doi:10.1016/j.envsci.2011.02.008
[11] P. G. Whitehead, A. J. Wade and D. Butterfield, “Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Water Quality and Ecology in Six UK Rivers,” Hydrology Research, Vol. 40, No. 2-3, 2009, pp. 113-122. doi:10.2166/nh.2009.078
[12] P. G. Whitehead, R. L. Wilby, R. W. Battarbee, M. Kernan and A. J. Wade, “A Review of the Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Surface Water Quality,” Hydrological Sciences Journal, Vol. 54, No. 1, 2009, pp. 101-123. doi:10.1623/hysj.54.1.101
[13] P. G. Whitehead, R. L. Wilby, D. Butterfield and A. J. Wade, “Impacts of Climate Change on In-Stream Nitrogen in a Lowland Chalk Stream: An Appraisal of Adaptation Strategies,” Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 365, No. 1-3, 2006, pp. 260-273. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2006.02.040
[14] J. M. Murphy, D. M. H. Sexton, G. J. Jenkins, P. M. Boorman, B. B. B. Booth, C. C. Brown, R. T. Clark, M. Collins, G. R. Harris, E. J. Kendon, R. A. Betts, S. J. Brown, T. P. Howard, K. A. Humphrey, M. P. McCarthy, R. E. McDonald, A. Stephens, C. Wallace, R. Warren, R. Wilby and R. A. Wood, “UK Climate Projections Science Report: Climate Change Projections,” Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, 2009.
[15] F. Giorgi and P. Lionello, “Climate Change Projections for the Mediterranean Region,” Global and Planetary Change, Vol. 63, No. 2-3, 2008, pp. 90-104. doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2007.09.005
[16] H. P. Jarvie, E. Lycett, C. Neal and A. Love, “Patterns in Nutrient Concentrations and Biological Quality Indices across the Upper Thames River Basin, UK,” Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 282, 2002, pp. 263-294. doi:10.1016/S0048-9697(01)00914-7
[17] P. J. Johnes, “Uncertainties in Annual Riverine Phosphorus Load Estimation: Impact of Load Estimation Methodology, Sampling Frequency, Baseflow Index and Catchment Population Density,” Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 332, No. 1-2, 2007, pp. 241-258. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2006.07.006
[18] C. P. Mainstone and W. Parr, “Phosphorus in Rivers— Ecology and Management,” Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 282, No. 1, 2002, pp. 25-47. doi:10.1016/S0048-9697(01)00937-8
[19] OECD, “Environmental Performance Reviews Turkey,” OECD, Paris, 2008.
[20] OECD, “Environmental Performance of Agriculture in OECD Countries Since 1990,” OECD, Paris, 2008.
[21] S. Filoso, L. A. Martinelli, R. W. Howarth, E. W. Boyer and F. Dentener, “Human Activities Changing the Nitrogen Cycle in Brazil,” Biogeochemistry, Vol. 79, No. 1-2, 2006, pp. 61-89. doi:10.1007/s10533-006-9003-0
[22] J. Xia, S. Cheng, X. Hao, R. Xia and X. Liu, “Potential Impacts and Challenges of Climate Change on Water Quality and Ecosystem: Case Studies in Representative Rivers in China,” Journal of Resources and Ecology, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2010, pp. 31-35.
[23] J. H. Christensen, B. Hewitson, A. Busuioc, A. Chen, X. Gao, I. Held, R. Jones, R. K. Kolli, W. T. Kwon, R. Laprise, V. Magana Rueda, L. Mearns, C. G. Menéndez, J. Raisanen, A. Rinke, A. Sarr and P. Whetton, “Regional Climate Projections,” In: S. Solomon, D. Qin, M. Manning, Z. Chen, M. Marquis, K.B. Averyt, M. Tignor and H. L. Miller, Eds., Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New York, 2007.
[24] M. Hadjikakou, P. G. Whitehead, L. Jin, M. Futter, P. Hadjinicolaou and M. Shahgedanova, “Modelling Nitrogen in the Yesilirmak River Catchment in Northern Turkey: Impacts of Future Climate and Environmental Change and Implications for Nutrient Management,” Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 409, No. 12, 2011, pp. 2404-2418. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.02.038
[25] EU, “EU Water Framework Directive,” 2008. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/water/water-framework/
[26] M. Moroglu and M. S. Yazgan, “Implementation of EU Water Framework Directive in Turkey,” Desalination, Vol. 226, No. 1-3, 2008, pp. 271-278. doi:10.1016/j.desal.2007.01.245
[27] A. Kibaroglu, “Analysis of the Integrated Water Resources Management Approach: Turkey-EU Water Relations as a Case Study,” Paper Presented in BALWOIS 2008 (Balkan Water Observation and Information Systems for Balkan Countries), Ohrid, 27-31 May 2008.
[28] S. Gurluk, “Turkey’s Challenges of River Basin Management and Implementation of the European Union Water Framework Directive,” Paper Presented in BALWOIS 2008 (Balkan Water Observation and Information Systems for Balkan countries). Ohrid, 27-31 May 2008.
[29] A. Kurunc, K. Yurekli and F. Ozturk, “Effect of Discharge Fluctuation on Water Quality Variables from the Yesilirmak River Tarim Bilimleri Dergisi,” Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Vol. 11, No. 2, 2005, pp. 189-195.
[30] M. C. Lekesiz, Y. Mesci and T. Yorulmaz, “Yesilirmak River Basin Development Project Model,” International Conference on River Basin Management, Antalya, 22-24 March 2007.
[31] A. Kurunc, K. Yurekli and E. Yutseven, “Determination of Sudden Changes in Time Series of Yesilirmak River-Durucasu Water Quality Records,” Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2005, pp. 122-126. doi:10.3923/jas.2005.122.126
[32] A. Samsunlu, “Ruhr-Yesilirmak Watersheds: Infrastructure Management and Implementations,” International Conference on River Basin Management, Antalya, 22-24 March 2007.
[33] EC, “European Atlas of the Seas,” 2010. http://ec.europa.eu/maritimeaffairs/atlas/ index_en.htm
[34] J. Kundell, “Water Profile of Turkey,” In: C. J. Cleveland, Ed., Encyclopedia of Earth, Environmental Information Coalition, National Council for Science and the Environment, Washington DC, 2009. http://www.eoearth.org/article/Water_profile_of_Turkey
[35] E. N. Soylu and A. Gonulol, “Phytoplankton and Seasonal Variations of the River Yesilirmak, Amasya, Turkiye Turkish,” Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Vol. 3, No. 1, 2003, pp. 17-24.
[36] Official Gazette, “Turkish Water Pollution Control Regulation, No. 19919.4,” 1988, Ankara.
[37] S. C. Chapra, “Surface Water Quality Modeling,” Mc-Graw Hill, New York, 1997, p. 844.
[38] C. Neal and A. L. Heathwaite, “Nutrient Mobility within River Basins: A European Perspective,” Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 304, No. 1-4, 2005, pp. 477-490. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2004.07.045
[39] C. Neal, H. Davies and M. Neal, “Water Quality, Nutrients and the Water Framework Directive in an Agricultural Region: The Lower Humber Rivers, Northern England,” Journal of Hydrology, Vol. 350, No. 3-4, 2008, pp. 232-245. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2007.10.059

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.