Share This Article:

Juice, Ethanol, and Grain Yield Potential of Five Sweet Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) Cultivars

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:229KB) PP. 113-118
DOI: 10.4236/jsbs.2013.32016    5,732 Downloads   9,834 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) accumulates fermentable sugars in the stem and is increasingly being studied as a potential source of feedstock for bioethanol production. The objective of this study was to evaluate biomass and grain yield in five sweet sorghum cultivars (Dale, M81E, Sugar Drip, Della and Keller) and to determine quality of extractable juice and grain. Randomized complete block experiments were performed in the summer of 2009, 2010, and 2011. Leaf dry weight varied with year and cultivar and averaged 6177 kg·ha-1. Fresh stem weight ranged from 21 to 54 Mg·ha-1 with a mean across years and cultivars of 32.9 Mg·ha-1. Variations in stem weight were correlated with extractable juice volumes that ranged from 10 to 24 m3·ha-1. Juice Brix values fell within a narrow range (14% - 19%) across years and cultivars with an average of 15.6%. In all production years, theoretical sugar and ethanol yield were always numerically higher for Keller and M81E. Grain yield was lowest in Keller (90 kg·ha-1), but ranged from 400 to 1300 kg·ha-1 in other cultivars with a mean of 584 kg·ha-1 across years. However, Keller had the highest starch content with a lower proportion of resistant starch in the grain. Except for Keller, the cultivars tested are potential sources of both fermentable sugars and grain.


Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

L. Rutto, Y. Xu, M. Brandt, S. Ren and M. Kering, "Juice, Ethanol, and Grain Yield Potential of Five Sweet Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor [L.] Moench) Cultivars," Journal of Sustainable Bioenergy Systems, Vol. 3 No. 2, 2013, pp. 113-118. doi: 10.4236/jsbs.2013.32016.

References

[1] F. M. Hons, R. F. Moresco, R. P. Wiedenfeld and J. T. Cothren, “Applied Nitrogen and Phosphorus Effects on Yield and Nutrient Uptake by High Energy Sorghum Produced for Grain and Biomass,” Agronomy Journal, Vol. 76, 1986, pp. 1069-1078. doi:10.2134/agronj1986.00021962007800060026x
[2] W. Zegada-Lizarazu, A. Zatta and A. Monti, “Water Uptake Efficiency and Aboveand Below-Ground Biomass Development of Sweet Sorghum and Maize under Different Water Regimes,” Plant Soil, Vol. 351, No. 1-2, 2012, pp. 47-60. doi:10.1007/s11104-011-0928-2
[3] P. L. Maskand and W. C. Morris, “Sweet Sorghum Culture and Syrup Production,” ACES Publications Alabama Co-Operative Extension Publications, 1991, pp. 1-12
[4] A. S. Bennett and R. P. Anex, “Production, Transportation and Milling Costs of Sweet Sorghum as a Feedstock for Centralized Bioethanol Production in the Upper Midwest,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 100, No. 4,2009,pp.1595-1607. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2008.09.023
[5] F. J. Hills, R. T. Lewellen and I. O. Skoyen, “Sweet Sorghum Cultivars for Alcohol Production,” California Agriculture, Vol. 44, No. 1, 1990, pp. 14-16.
[6] D. H. Putnam, W. E. Lueschen, B. K. Kanne and T. R. Hoverstad, “A Comparison of Sweet Sorghum Cultivars and Maize for Ethanol Production,” Journal of Production Agriculture, Vol. 4, No. 3, 1991, pp. 377-381. doi:10.2134/jpa1991.0377
[7] S. Koeppen, G. Reinhardt and S. Gaertner, “Assessment of Energy and Greenhouse Gas Inventories of Sweet Sorghum for First and Second Generation Bioethanol,” FAO Environmental and Natural Resources Service Series, No. 30, FAO, Rome, 2009.
[8] B. V. S. Reddy, S. Ramesh, P. S. Reddy, B. Ramaiah, P. M. Salimath and K. Rajashekar, “Sweet Sorghum—A Potential Alternate Raw Material for Bio-Ethanol and Bioenergy,” International Sorghum and Millets Newsletter, Vol. 46, 2005, pp. 79-86.
[9] J. Fernandez and M. D. Curt, “New Energy Crops for Bioethanol Production in the Mediterranean Region,” International Sugar Journal, Vol. 107, No. 1283, 2005, pp. 622-627.
[10] G. Grassi, “Sweet Sorghum: One of the Best World FoodFeed-Energy Crops,” LANMET, 2001.
[11] S. Prasad, A. Singh, N. Jainand and H. C. Joshi, “Ethanol Production from Sweet Sorghum Syrup for Utilization as Automotive Fuel in India,” Energy Fuels, Vol. 21, No. 4, 2007, pp. 2415-2420. doi:10.1021/ef060328z
[12] R. E. Schaffert, “Sweet Sorghum Substrate for Industrial Alcohol,” Proceedings of the International Workshop on Policy, Practice, and Potential Relating to Uses of Sorghum and Millets, Bulawayo, 1988, p. 26.
[13] M. Sakellariou-Makrantonaki, D. Papalexis, N. Nakos and I. K. Kalavrouziotis, “Effect of Modern Irrigation Methods on Growth and Energy Production of Sweet Sorghum (var. Keller) on a Dry Year in Central Greece,” Agricultural Water Management, Vol. 90, No. 3, 2007, pp. 181-189. doi:10.1016/j.agwat.2007.03.004
[14] J. R. N. Taylor, T. J. Schober and S. R. Bean, “Novel Food and Non-Food Uses for Sorghum and Millets,” Journal of Cereal Science, Vol. 44, No. 3, 2006, pp. 252-271. doi:10.1016/j.jcs.2006.06.009
[15] E. Gnansounou, A. Dauriat and C. E. Wyman, “Refining Sweet Sorghum to Ethanol and Sugar: Economic TradeOffs in the Context of North China,” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 96, No. 9, 2005, pp. 985-1002. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2004.09.015
[16] M. A. Liebig and G. E. Varvel, “Effects of Western Corn Belt Cropping Systems on Agroecosystem Function,” Agronomy Journal, Vol. 95, No. 2, 2003, pp. 316-322. doi:10.2134/agronj2003.0316
[17] R. E. Schaffert and L. M. Gourley, “Sorghum as an Energy Source,” Proceedings of the International Symposium on Sorghum, Patancheru, 1981, pp. 605-623.
[18] C. O. Kangama and X. Rumei, “Introduction of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) into China,” African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol. 4, No. 7, 2005, pp. 575-579.
[19] Y. L. Zhao, A. Dolat, Y. Steinberger, X. Wang, A. Osman and G. H. Xie, “Biomass Yield and Chemical Composition of Sweet Sorghum Cultivars Grown for Biofuel,” Crop Science, Vol. 111, No. 1-2, 2009, pp. 55-64.
[20] E. L. Hunter and I. C. Anderson, “Sweet Sorghum,” In J. Janick, Ed., Horticultural Reviews, John Wileys & Sons, Inc., Oxford, 1997, Vol. 21, pp. 73-104.
[21] D. Luhnow and G. Samor, “As Brazil Fill up on Ethanol, It Weans off Energy Imports,” 2006. http://wsj.com/article/SB113676947533241219.html
[22] V. Sharma, K. D. Rausch, J. V. Graeber, S. J. Schmidt, P. Buriak, M. E. Tumbleson and V. Singh, “Effect of Resistant Starch on Hydrolysis and Fermentation of Corn Starch for Ethanol,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, Vol. 160, No. 3, 2005, pp. 800-811. doi:10.1007/s12010-009-8651-7
[23] G. Grassi, G. Tondi and P. Helm, “Small-Sized Commercial Bioenergy Technologies as an Instrument of Rural Development,” Biomass and Agriculture: Sustainability, Markets and Policies, OECD Publication Service, Paris, 2004, pp. 277-287.
[24] F. J. Davila-Gomeza, C. Chuck-Hernandeza, E. Perez-Carrilloa, W. L. Rooney and S. O. Serna-Saldivara, “Evaluation of Bioethanol Production from Five Different Varieties of Sweet and Forage Sorghums (Sorghum bicolor (L) Moench),” Industrial Crops and Products, Vol. 33, No. 3, 2011, pp. 611-616. doi:10.1016/j.indcrop.2010.12.022
[25] M. Guigoi, C. Lareo, L. V. Pérez, M. E. Lluberas, D. Vázquez and M. D. Ferrari, “Bioethanol Production from Sweet Sorghum: Evaluation of Post-Harvest Treatments on Sugar Extraction and Fermentation,” Biomass and Bioenergy, Vol. 35, No. 7, 2011, pp. 3058-3062. doi:10.1016/j.biombioe.2011.04.028
[26] L. Laopaiboon, P. Thanonkeo, S. Naunpeng, P. Jaisil and P. Laopaiboon, “Ethanol Production from Sweet Sorghum Juice in Batch and Fed-Batch Fermentations by Saccharomyces cerevisiae TISTR 5048,” In: Technology and Innovation for Sustainable Development Conference (TISD 2006), Khon Kaen University, 2006, pp. 389-391.
[27] T. W. Pfeiffer, M. J. Bitzer, J. J. Toy and J. F. Pedersen, “Heterosis in Sweet Sorghum and Selection of a New Sweet Sorghum Hybrid for Use in Syrup Production in Appalachia,” Crop Science, Vol. 50, No. 5, 2010, pp. 1788-1794. doi:10.2135/cropsci2009.09.0475
[28] X. Wu, S. Staggenborg, J. L. Propheter, W. L. Rooney, J. Yu and D. Wang, “Features of Sweet Sorghum Juice and Their Performance in Ethanol Fermentation,” Industrial Crop Production, Vol. 31, No. 1, 2010, pp. 164-170. doi:10.1016/j.indcrop.2009.10.006
[29] C. S. Wortmann, A. J. Liska, R. B. Ferguson, D. J. Lyon, R. N. Klein and I. Dweikat, “Dryland Performance of Sweet Sorghum and Grain Crops for Biofuel in Nebraska,” Agronomy Journal, Vol. 102, No. 1, 2010, pp. 319-326. doi:10.2134/agronj2009.0271
[30] V. H. Teetor, D. V. Duclos, E. T. Wittenberg, K. M. Young, J. Chawhuaymak, M. R. Riley and D. T. Ray, “Effects of Planting Date on Sugar and Ethanol Yield of Sweet Sorghum Grown in Arizona,” Industrial Crops and Products, Vol. 34, No. 2, 2011, pp. 1293-1300. doi:10.1016/j.indcrop.2010.09.010
[31] J. M. Soileau and B. N. Bradford, “Biomass and Sugar Yield Response of Sweet Sorghum to Lime and Fertilizer,” Agronomy Journal, Vol. 77, 1985, pp. 471-475. doi:10.2134/agronj1985.00021962007700030025x
[32] P. L. Tamang, K. F. Bronson, A. Malapati, R. Schwartz, J. Johnson and J. Moore-Kucera, “Nitrogen Requirement for Ethanol Production from Sweet and Photoperiod Sensitive Sorghums in the Southern High Plains,” Agronomy Journal, Vol. 103, No. 2, 2011, pp. 431-440.
[33] J. L. Propheter and S. Straggenborg, “Performance of Annual and Perennial Biofuel Crops. Yield during the First Two Years,” Agronomy Journal, Vol. 102, No. 2, 2010, pp. 806-814. doi:10.2134/agronj2009.0301
[34] D. Wong, “Sorghum Starch for Biofuels,” International Conference on Sorghum for Biofuel, Houston, 2008. http://www.ars.usda.gov/meetings/Sorghum/presentations/Wang%202008%20Houston%20V1.pdf
[35] K. I. Baghurst, P. A. Baghurst and S. J. Record, “Dietary Fiber, Non-Starch Polysaccharides and Resistant Starch,” In: G. A. Spiller, Ed., CRC Handbook of Dietary Fiber in Human Health, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1996, pp. 583-591.
[36] A. Dilek, “The Effects of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) Phenolic Compounds on Starch Digestibility of Porridges,” Ph.D. Dissertation, A & M University, 2008.
[37] S. Hendrich, “Battling Obesity with Resistant Starch,” Food Technology, Vol. 64, No. 3, 2010, pp. 22-30.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.