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Analysis of Sesquiterpene Distributions in the Leaves, Branches, and Trunks of Avocado (Persea americana Mill.)

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DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2013.44114    3,405 Downloads   5,732 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Avocado is a commercially valuable fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical climates throughout the world. Taxonomists recognize three horticultural races of avocado, consisting of Mexican (Persea americana var. drymifolia), Guatemalan (P. americana var. guatemalensis), and West Indian (P. americana var. americana) varieties. Published research that attempted to differentiate among the horticultural races by using leaf chemistry found that sesquiterpene content was only useful for discrimination of pure Mexican from Guatemalan and West Indian, but not to distinguish between Guatemalan and West Indian races. This study presents a sampling method for analysis of sesquiterpenes from avocado leaf, branch and trunk samples. Our results indicate that sesquiterpene content from leaves and small diameter branches (<2.5 cm) was highly variable; however, sesquiterpenes were much less variable within wood from larger diameter branches and trunk samples, providing information representative of avocado varietal differences. In addition to chemotaxonomic applications, information on sesquiterpene content of avocado wood is needed for identification of host-based attractants for a new avocado pest, the redbay ambrosia beetle (Xyleborus glabratus). This insect vectors a fungal pathogen that causes laurel wilt, a lethal vascular disease that currently threatens avocado production in south Florida, USA. Females of X. glabratus identify appropriate host trees based on emissions of terpenoids, particularly α-copaene. Our results are discussed in terms of how proximo-distal distributions of sesquiterpenes may function as host-location cues by this invasive wood-boring pest.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

J. Niogret, N. Epsky, E. Schnell, R. Schnell, R. Heath, A. Meerow and P. Kendra, "Analysis of Sesquiterpene Distributions in the Leaves, Branches, and Trunks of Avocado (Persea americana Mill.)," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 4, 2013, pp. 922-931. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2013.44114.

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