Share This Article:

The varied rate of response to dietary intervention in autistic children

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:187KB) PP. 56-60
DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2013.32A009    3,913 Downloads   6,605 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Exorphins from casein and gluten have been found by HPLC and mass spectroscopy with fragmentation pattern in quickly frozen urine. Removing the proteins that contain these peptides, by dietary intervention has been tried with behavioral effects. We wanted to know how fast such changes take place. Method: Parents and caregivers filled out ATEC scores (Autism treatment evaluation checklist) over time so that changes in scores could be registered. Results: In this group of children who all responded to diet the time required for a positive effect was months rather than weeks. Conclusion: Short term interventions are probably a waste of time and money, and at least 3 - 6 months trials seem to be necessary.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Klaveness, J. , Bigam, J. and Reichelt, K. (2013) The varied rate of response to dietary intervention in autistic children. Open Journal of Psychiatry, 3, 56-60. doi: 10.4236/ojpsych.2013.32A009.

References

[1] Reichelt, K.l. and Knivsberg, A.-M. (2003) Can the pathophysiology of autism be explained by the nature and the discovered urine peptides? Nutritional Neuroscience, 6, 19-28. doi:10.1080/1028415 021000042839
[2] Cade, R., Private, Fregly, M., Rowland, N., Sun, Z., Zele, V., Wagemaker, H. and Edelstein, C. (2000) Autism and schizophrenia: Intestinal disorders. Nutritional Neuroscience, 3, 57-72.
[3] Reichelt, K.L., Tveiten, D., Knivasberg, A.-M. and Bronstad, G. (2012) Peptides role in autism with emphasis on exorphins. Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease, 23, 2012. doi:10.3402/mehd. v23i0.18958
[4] Reichelt, K.L., Ekrem, J. and Scott, H. (1990) Gluten, milk proteins and autism: Dietary intervention effects on behavior and peptide secretion. Journal of Applied Nutrition, 42, 1-11.
[5] Kawashti, M.I., Amin, O.R. and Rowehy, N.G. (2006) Possible immunological disorders in autism: Concomitant autoimmunity and immune tolerance. Egyptian Journal of Immunology, 13, 99-104.
[6] Traikovski, V., Petichoski, A., Efinska-Mladenovskia, O., Trajkov, D., Arsov, T. and Strezova, A. (2008) Higher plasma concentration of food-specific antibodies in persons with autistic disorder in comparison to their siblings. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 23, 176-186. doi:10.1177/1088357608320413
[7] Vojdani, A., O’Bryan, T., Green, J.A., Mc Candless, J., Woeller, K.N., Vojdani, E., Nourian, A.A. and Cooper, E.L. (2004) Immune response to dietary proteins, gliadin and cerebellar peptides in children with autism. Nutritional Neuroscience, 7, 151-161.
[8] Knivsberg, A.-M., Wiig, K., Lind, G., N?dland, M. and Reichelt, K.L. (1990) Dietary intervention in autistic syndromes. Brain Dysfunction, 3, 315-327.
[9] Reichelt, K.L., Knivsberg, A.-M., Lind, G. and Nodland, M. (1991) Probable etiology and possible treatment of childhood autism. Brain Dysfunction, 4, 308-319.
[10] Lucarelli, S., Frediani, T., Zingoni, A.M., Ferruzzi, F., Giardini, O., Quintieri, F., Barbato, M., D’Eufemia, P. and Cardi, E. (1995) Food allergy and infantile autism. Panminerva Medica, 37, 137-141.
[11] Kniker, W.T., Andrews, A., Hundley, A. and Garver, C. (2001) The possible role of intolerance to milk/dairy and wheat/gluten foods in older children and adults with autism spectrum disorder. An autism odyssey. The Autism Research Unit, Sunderland University, 183-191.
[12] Whiteley, P., Rodgers, J., Savery, D. and Shattock, P. (1999) A gluten-free diet as an intervention for autism and associated spectrum disorders: Preliminary findings. Autism, 3, 45-65. doi:10.1177/1362 361399003001005
[13] Slimak, K.M. (2003) Reduction of autistic traits following dietary intervention and elimination of exposure to environmental substances. Proceedings of International Symposium on Indoor Air Quality and Health Hazards, Tokyo, 8-11 January 2003, pp. 206-216.
[14] Pennesi, C.M. and Klein, C. (2012) Effectiveness of the gluten-free, casein-free diet for children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder: Based on parental report. Nutritional Neuroscience, 15, 85-91. doi:10.1179/1476830512Y.0000000003
[15] Knivsberg, A.-M., Reichelt, K.L., Haien, T. and Nodland, M. (2002) A Randomized, controlled study of dietary intervention in autistic syndromes. Nutritional Neuroscience, 5, 251-261. doi:10.1080/10284 150290028945
[16] Whiteley, P., Haracopos, D., Knivsberg, A.-M., Reichelt, K.L., Parlar, S., Jacobsen, J., Seim, A., Pedersen, L., Schondel, M. and Shattock, P. (2010) The ScanBrit randomized, controlled, single-blind study of a gluten-and casein-free dietary intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders. Nutritional Neuroscience, 13, 87-100. doi:10.1179/147683010X12611460763922
[17] Knivsberg, A.-M., Reichelt, K.L., Nodland, M. and Hoien, T. (1995) Autistic syndromes and diet: A follow-up study. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 39, 223-236.
[18] Johnson, C.R., Handen, B.L., Zimmer, M., Sacco, K. and Turner, K. (2011) Effects of gluten free/casein free diet in young children with autism: a pilot study. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 23, 213-225. doi:10.1007/s10882-010-9217-x
[19] Elder, J.H., Shankar, M., Shuster, J., Theriaque, D., Burns, S. and Sherril, L. (2006) Review of the gluten-free, casein-free diet in autism: Results of a preliminary double blind trial. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 16, 413-420. doi:10.1007/s10803-006-0079-0
[20] Reichelt, K.L., Sagedal, E., Landmark, J., Tshumi-Sangvik, B., Eggen, O. and Scott, H. (1990) The effect of a gluten free diet on glycoprotein associated urinary peptide excretion in schizophrenia. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, 5, 223-239.
[21] Rimland, B. (2003) Parents rating of the behavioral effects of biomedical interventions. Autism Institute Reports.
[22] Klaveness, J. and Bigam, J. (2002) The GFCF kids diet survey. In: Building Bridges. The Autism Research Unit and Autism North Ltd., Sunderland, 77-84.
[23] Hadjivassiliou, M., Boscolo, S., Davies-Jones, G.A.B., Grünewald, R.A., Not, T., Sandea, D.S., Simpson, J.E., Tongiorgi, E., Williamson, C.A. and Woodroofe, N.M. (2002) The humeral response in the pathogenesis of gluten ataxia. Neurology, 58, 1221-1226. doi:10.1212/WNL.58.8.1221
[24] Reichelt, K.L. and Knivsberg, A.-M. (2009) The possibility and probability of a gut-to-brain connection in autism. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 21, 205-211. https://www.aacp. com/pdf%2F2104%2 F2104AC P_Revi ew1.pdf
[25] Sacco, R., Curatolo, P., Manzi, B., Militerni, R., Bravaccio, C., Frolli, A., Lenti, C., Saccani, M., Elia, M., Reichelt, K.L., Pscucci, T., Puglisi-Allegra, S. and Persico, A.M. (2010) Principal pathogenic components and biological endophenotypes in autism spectrum disorders. Autism Research, 3, 237-252. doi:10.1002/aur.151
[26] Sun, Z., Cade, R.J., Firefly, M.J. and Privette, R.M. (1999) Beta casomorphin induces fos-like immunoreactivity in discrete brain regions relevant to schizophrenia and autism. Autism, 3, 67-83. doi:10.1177/1362361399003001006
[27] Hauser, K.F., McLaughlin, P.J. and Zagon, I.S. (1989) Endogenous opioid systems and the regulation of dendritic growth and spine formation. Journal of Comparative Neurobiology, 281, 13-22. doi:10.1002/cne.902810103

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.