Share This Article:

Relationship between Nitrogen Atmospheric Deposition, Discharge and Concentration, and Monthly Change of Those in a River

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:1619KB) PP. 283-293
DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.53029    2,890 Downloads   4,812 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

The hypothesis that the product of discharge and concentration of nitrogen (N) in river water is equal to the atmospheric deposition was verified in the mountainous basin of the Tedori River in Japan. To verify this relationship, long-term data are required to eliminate the effect of short-term variation of the N components. The basin has very high mountains, including Mount Hakusan (2702 maltitude), which is covered with deep snow in winter. Therefore, limited data were used for the estimation of the deposition of the entire basin by assuming a linear relationship of altitude. As a result, it was found that the estimated N concentration coincided well with observed concentrations at six sites—the Shiramine and Kuwajima (upper stream), Nakajima (lower stream) and Dainichi dam, Tedori dam and Senami sites (middle stream). The seasonal variation of N concentrations was low in the snowmelt period and high in autumn through to winter. This was not due to the larger discharge in snowmelt season as it was also found that N deposition was high in winter and low in spring, which indicated a clear relationship between N concentration and monthly atmospheric deposition including N storage in snow pack.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

T. Maruyama, M. Yoshida, K. Takase, H. Takimoto and S. Ishikawa, "Relationship between Nitrogen Atmospheric Deposition, Discharge and Concentration, and Monthly Change of Those in a River," Journal of Water Resource and Protection, Vol. 5 No. 3, 2013, pp. 283-293. doi: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.53029.

References

[1] G. Iwatubo, N. Tokuch and Y. Nakagawa, “Rain and Forest Runoff-Water Chemistry, The 30 Years Change in the Amount of Dissolved Elements in Rain Water, Input and Output Budget of Elements in Rain and Runoff Water, and the Extensive Regional Change of Runoff Water Chemistry,” Japanese Journal of Environmental Toxicology, Vol. 39, No. 2, 1997, pp. 63-71.
[2] R. L. Crocker and J. Major, “Soil Development in Relation to Vegetation and Surface Age of Glacier Bay, Alaska,” Journal of Ecology, Vol. 43, No. 2, 1995, pp. 427-448. doi:10.2307/2257005
[3] T. Tsutsumi, “Effect on Soil Characteristics by All Cutting of Tree and Sustainable Forest,” Forest Experimental Station Report of Kyoto University, Kyoto, 1963, pp. 37-64.
[4] T. Kira and T. Shidai, “Primary Production and Turnover of Organic Matter in Different Forest Ecosystem of Western Pacific,” Japanese Journal of Ecology, Vol. 7, 1967, pp. 70-87.
[5] Y. Tsukamoto, “Forest hydrology,” Buneido Ltd., 1992.
[6] Tsutsumi, “Material Cycle in Forest,” Tokyo University Publishing Ltd., 1987, p. 51.
[7] T. Tsutsumi, “Forest Ecology,” Asakura Ltd., 1989, p. 150.
[8] A. Hirose, G. Iwatubo and T. Tustusmi, “Study on Run-Off Water Chemistry in Japanese Forest (1),” Forest Experimental Station Report of Kyoto University, Vol. 60, 1988, pp. 162-173.
[9] G. Iwatubo, “Forest Ecology,” Buneido Ltd., Vol. 116, No. 121, 1996, pp. 172-177.
[10] Shiramine, “Histry of Shiramine,” Vol. 1, 1961, pp. 18-20.
[11] Oguch, “Histry of Oguch,” Ishikawa Prefecture, Vol. 1, 1978, pp. 66-74.
[12] Construction Bureau of Hokuriku Region, “Kanazawa Office of Construction Works, History of Flood Control,” 1985, pp. 13-15.
[13] Ishikawa Prefecture, “Investigation Report on Environment and Air. 2006-2010,” Research Institute of Ishikawa Environment and Health, 2007-2011.
[14] Japanese Association of Environment, “Forth Report of Acid Rainfall in Japan 2005, Environment Research Committee,” Journal of Environmental Laboratories Association, 2007, p. 47.
[15] Japanese Association of Environment, “Forth Report of Acid Rainfall in Japan, 2006, Environment Research Committee,” Journal of Environmental Laboratories Association, 2008, p. 63.
[16] Japanese Association of Environment, “Forth Report of Acid Rainfall in Japan, 2007,” Journal of Environmental Laboratories Association, 2009, p. 63.
[17] F. Noto, T. Maruyama, Y. Hayase, H. Takimoeo and K. Nakamura, “An Evaluation of Snow Storage Depth in the Tedori River Basin Using Tank Model, Trans.” Japan Society Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Vol. 268, 2010, pp. 31-37.
[18] F. Noto, T. Maruyama, H. Takimoto, K. Nakamura and T. Onishi, “Evaluation of Water Resources by Snow Storage Using Tank Model in the Tedori River Basin in Japan,” Paddy and Water Environment, Vol. 11, No. 1-4, 2011, pp. 113-121.
[19] Ishikawa Water Supply Office of Tedori River, “Annual Report of Water Quality, 1976-2010,” Ishikawa Water Supply Office of Tedori River, 1977-2011.
[20] Hokuriku Regional Agricultural Administration Office, “Annual Report of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery of Ishikawa Prefecture 2004-2005,” 2006.
[21] T. Maruyama, I. Hashimoto, K. Murashima, H. Takimoto and D. Nakade, “Assessment for Nitrogen Pollution Loads from Farmland, Japan, by Objective Yield and Standard Fertilizer Usage,” Paddy and Water Environment, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2009, pp. 151-159. doi:10.1007/s10333-009-0157-y
[22] T. Maruyama, F. Noto, K. Murashima, I. Hashimoto and K. Kitada, “Analysis of the Nitrogen Pollution Lord Potential from Farmland in the Tedori River Alluvial Fan Areas in Japan,” Paddy and Water Environment, Vol. 8, No. 3, 2010, pp. 293-300. doi:10.1007/s10333-010-0202-x
[23] T. Maruyama, H. Takimoto, I. Hashimoto, D. Nakade and K. Murashima, “Evaluation of Nitrogen Load Potential from Agricultural Land. By Objective Yield and Standard Fertilizer Usage Association of Upland Agriculture Promotion of Japan,” Upland Agriculture, Vol. 615, 2010, pp. 1-11.
[24] T. Maruyam, F. Noto, K. Murashima, I. Hashimoto and K. Kitada, “Analysis of the Nitrogen Pollution Load Potential from Farmland on the Tedori River Alluvial Fan Areas,” Paddy and Water Environment, Vol. 8, No. 3, 2010, pp. 293-300. doi:10.1007/s10333-010-0202-x
[25] T. Maruyama, F. Noto, T. Takahashi, T. Tsuchihara and T. Tanaka, “Analysis of Nitrogen Pollution Load by Domestic Waste Water Treatment in the Tedori River Alluvial Fan Areas, Trans.” Japan Society Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, Vol. 269, 2010, pp. 113-119.
[26] T. Maruyama, F. Noto, T. Takahashi, K. Nakamura and T. Onishi, “Assessment of Environmental Nitrogen Pollution Load Potential from Sewage Treatment Water in the Tedori River Alluvial Fan Area, Japan,” Paddy and Water Environment, Vol. 9, No. 2, 2011, pp. 267-274. doi:10.1007/s10333-010-0248-9
[27] Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery, “Investigation on Rice Consume,” 2012. http://www.maff.go.jp/j/press/shokusan/keikaku/080522.html
[28] Y. Sasaki, “Domestic Animal Physiology,” Yokendo Ltd., 2000, p. 249.
[29] Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fishery, Feed Situation, “Domestic Animal Division and Food Safety Management Division,” 2012. http://www.maff.go.jp/j/chikusann/sinko/l-siryo/pdf/1205meguru.pdf
[30] T. Maruyama, M. Yoshida, K. Takase and H. Takimoto, “Research on Nitrogen Balance in the Mountainous Tedori River Basin of Japan,” Journal of Japan Society of Hydrology and Water, 2013.
[31] M. J. Mitchell, G. Iwatubo, R. Ohrui and Y. Nakagawa, “Nitrogen Saturation in Japanese Forest: An Evaluation,” Forest Ecology and Management, Vol. 97, No. 1, 1977, pp. 39-51. doi:10.1016/S0378-1127(97)00047-9
[32] K. Ohrui and M. J. Mitchll, “Nitrogen Saturation in Japanese Forested Watersheds,” Ecological Applications, Vol. 7, No. 2, 1997, pp. 391-401.
[33] G. Iwatubo, “Natural Purification Function in Forest (Natural Purification Function),” Soomiya Isao, Gihoodo Ltd., 1990, pp. 36-61.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.