Share This Article:

Enhancement of Error-Correction Coding of Spatial Watermarks in Gray Code

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:426KB) PP. 57-63
DOI: 10.4236/jsip.2013.41007    2,759 Downloads   4,225 Views   Citations
Author(s)    Leave a comment

ABSTRACT

This paper demonstrates how channel coding can improve the robustness of spatial image watermarks against signal distortion caused by lossy data compression such as the JPEG scheme by taking advantage of the properties of Gray code. Two error-correction coding (ECC) schemes are used here: One scheme, referred to as the vertical ECC (VECC), is to encode information bits in a pixel by error-correction coding where the Gray code is used to improve the performance. The other scheme, referred to as the horizontal ECC (HECC), is to encode information bits in an image plane. In watermarking, HECC generates a codeword representing watermark bits, and each bit of the codeword is encoded by VECC. Simple single-error-correcting block codes are used in VECC and HECC. Several experiments of these schemes were conducted on test images. The result demonstrates that the error-correcting performance of HECC just depends on that of VECC, and accordingly, HECC enhances the capability of VECC. Consequently, HECC with appropriate codes can achieve stronger robustness to JPEG—caused distortions than non-channel-coding watermarking schemes.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

T. Kimoto, "Enhancement of Error-Correction Coding of Spatial Watermarks in Gray Code," Journal of Signal and Information Processing, Vol. 4 No. 1, 2013, pp. 57-63. doi: 10.4236/jsip.2013.41007.

References

[1] B. M. Macq, “Special Issue on Identification and Protection of Multimedia Information,” Proceeding of the IEEE, Vol. 87, No. 7, 1999, pp. 1059-1276.
[2] J. R. Hernández, F. P. González and J. M. Rodriguez, “The Impact of Channel Coding on the Performance of Spatial Watermarking for Copyright Protection,” Proceedings of the 1997 IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, Seattle Washington, 12-15 May 1998, pp. 2973-2976.
[3] I. J. Cox, M. L. Miller and J. A. Bloom, “Digital Watermarking,” Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Francisco, 2002.
[4] Y. Yi, M. H. Lee, J. H. Kim and G. Y. Hwang, “Robust Wavelet-Based Information Hiding through Low-Density Parity-Check (LDPC) Codes,” In: T. Kalker, I. J. Cox and Y. M. Ro, Eds., Digital Watermarking, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2004, pp. 117-128. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-24624-4_9
[5] T. Kimoto, “Error-Correction Coding of Spatial Image Watermarks in Gray Code,” Proceeding of the 7th International Conference on Signal-Image Technology and Internet-Based Systems, Dijon, 28 November-1 December 2011, pp. 358-365. doi:10.1109/SITIS.2011.51
[6] R. C. Gonzalez and R. E. Woods, “Digital Image Processing,” Addison-Wesley, Boston, 1993.
[7] ISO CD 10918, “Digital Compression and Coding of Continuous-Tone Still Images,” ISO/IEC JTC1/SC2/WG10, 1991.
[8] F. H. Wang, J. S. Pan and L. C. Jain, “Innovations in Digital Watermarking Techniques,” Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2009. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-03187-8
[9] M. H. M. Costa, “Writing on Dirty Paper,” IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Vol. 29, No. 3, 1983, pp. 439-441. doi:10.1109/TIT.1983.1056659

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.