Share This Article:

Structural Holes and Banner-Ad Click-Throughs

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:1165KB) PP. 30-44
DOI: 10.4236/ti.2013.41005    4,464 Downloads   6,758 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

This paper examines the impact of social capital on advertising performance in an online social network. Specifically, we show that a widely-employed measure of social capital—network constraint—explains variation in the number of click-throughs received by 5986 banner advertisements appearing on 25 Twitter-related websites. As predicted, banner advertisements receive significantly more clicks when placed on websites that bridge structural holes, i.e. bridge otherwise disconnected segments of the network.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

S. Hunter III and R. Chinta, "Structural Holes and Banner-Ad Click-Throughs," Technology and Investment, Vol. 4 No. 1, 2013, pp. 30-44. doi: 10.4236/ti.2013.41005.

References

[1] Interactive Advertising Bureau, “April 2009: Worldwide Social Network Ad Spending,” 2009. http://www.iab.net/insights_research/530422/1675/804264.
[2] D. Lee, “Making money on a social network,” 2009. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/technology/7914351.stm
[3] Twitter, “Does Twitter Hate Advertising?” 2009. http://blog.twitter.com/2009/05/does-twitter-hate-advertising.html
[4] M. Monahan, “KPMG/Always on VC Survey: What You’re Telling Us,” On Media NYC, New York, 2008.
[5] P. Kafka and A. Hallberg, “Report Card: Advertising Meets Social Networks-Have Ads Shown Traction on Major Social Networks and if Not, How Can They Be Optimized?” On Media NYC, New York, 2008.
[6] D. A. Williamson, “Social Network Marketing: Slow Growth Ahead for Ad Spending,” e-Marketer, 2008.
[7] A. Enders, H. Hungenberg, H.-P. Denker and S. Mauch, “The Long Tail of Social Networking: Revenue Models of Social Networking Sites,” European Management Journal, Vol. 26, No. 3, 2008, pp. 199-211. doi:10.1016/j.emj.2008.02.002
[8] C. P. Campbell, P. Maglio, A. Cozzi and B. Dorn, “Expertise Identification Using Email Communications,” Conference on Information and Knowledge Management, New Orleans, 2003, pp. 528-531.
[9] T. Palonen and K. Hakkarainen, “Patterns of Interaction in Computer-Supported Learning: A Social Network Analysis,” In: B. Fishman and S. O’Connor-Divelbiss, Eds., Fourth International Conferences of the Learning Sciences, Mahwah, 2000, pp. 334-339.
[10] L. Leydesdorff, “Betweenness Centrality as an Indicator of the Interdisciplinarity of Scientific Journals,” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, Vol. 58, No. 9, 2007, pp. 1303-1319. doi:10.1002/asi.20614
[11] J. Xu and H. Chen, “Criminal Network Analysis and Visualization,” Communications of the ACM, Vol. 486, No. 6, 2005, pp. 101-107.
[12] S. P. Borgatti and L. Xun, “On Network Theory. Organization Science,” Journal of Supply Chain Management, Vol. 45, No. 2, 2009, pp. 5-22. doi:10.1111/j.1745-493X.2009.03166.x
[13] S. Rodan and C. Galunic, “More than Network Structure: How Knowledge Heterogeneity Influences Managerial Performance and Innovativeness,” Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 25, No. 6, 2004, pp. 541-556. doi:10.1002/smj.398
[14] P. Balkundi, M. Kilduff, Z. Barsness and J. Michael, “Demographic Antecedents and Performance Consequences of Structural Holes,” Journal of Organizational Behavior, Vol. 28, No. 2, 2007, pp. 241-260. doi:10.1002/job.428
[15] S. Okazaki, “The Tactical Use of Mobile Marketing: How Adolescents: Social Networking Can Best Shape Brand Extensions,” Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 49, No 1, 2009, pp. 12-26. doi:10.2501/S0021849909090102
[16] N. Lin, K. Cook and R. Burt, “Social Capital: Theory and Research,” Aldine de Gruyter, New York, 2001.
[17] R. Burt, “Brokerage and Closure: An Introduction to Social Capital,” Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2005.
[18] R. Burt, “Structural Holes: The Social Structure of Competition,” Harvard University Press, Cambridge, 1995.
[19] V. Krebs, “Social Network Analysis, A Brief Introduction,” 2009. http://www.orgnet.com/sna.html
[20] R. Burt, “The Network Structure of Social Capital,” Research in Organizational Behavior, Vol. 22, No. 3, 2000, pp. 325-423.
[21] P. Moran, “Structural and Relational Embeddedness: Social Capital and Managerial Performance,” Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 26, No. 12, 2005, pp. 1129-1151. doi:10.1002/smj.486
[22] G. Soda, A. Usai and A. Zaheer, “Network Memory: The Influence of Past and Current Networks on Performance,” Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 47, No. 6, 2004, pp. 893-906. doi:10.2307/20159629
[23] B. Iyer, C. Lee and N. Venkatraman, “Managing in a Small World Ecosystem: Some Lessons from the Software Sector,” California Management Review, Vol. 48, No. 3, 2008, pp. 28-47. doi:10.2307/41166348
[24] W. Oh, J. Choi and K. Kim, “Coauthorship Dynamics and Knowledge Capital: The Patterns of Cross-Disciplinary Collaboration in Information Systems Research,” Journal of Management Information Systems, Vol. 22, No. 3, 2006, pp. 265-292. doi:10.2753/MIS0742-1222220309
[25] T. Heinze, G. Bauer and P. Moran, “Structural and Relational Embeddedness: Social Capital and Managerial Performance,” Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 26, No. 12, 2005, pp. 1129-1151. doi:10.1002/smj.486
[26] D. Ganley and C. Lampe, “The Ties that Bind: Social Network Principles in Online Communities,” Decision Support Systems, Vol. 47, No. 3, 2009. pp. 266-274. doi:10.1016/j.dss.2009.02.013
[27] C. Okoli and W. Oh, “Investigating Recognition-Based Performance in an Open Content Community: A Social Capital Perspective,” Information and Management, Vol. 44, No. 3, 2007, pp. 240-252. doi:10.1016/j.im.2006.12.007
[28] R. Gatarski, “Breed Better Banners: Design Automation through On-Line Interaction,” Journal of Interactive Marketing, Vol. 16, No. 1, 2001, pp. 2-13. doi:10.1002/dir.10002
[29] H. Robinson and A. Wysocka and C. Hand, “Internet Advertising Effectiveness: The Effect of Design for ClickThrough Rates for Banner Ads,” International Journal of Advertising, Vol. 26, No. 4, 2007, pp. 527-541.
[30] R. Briggs and N. Hollis, “Advertising on the Web: Is There Response before Click-Through?” Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 37, No. 2, 1997, pp. 33-45.
[31] H. Li and J. Bukovac, “Cognitive Impact of Banner Ad Characteristics: An Experimental Study,” Journalism & Mass Communication, Vol. 76, No. 2, 1999, pp. 341-353. doi:10.1177/107769909907600211
[32] X. Dreze and F. Hussherr, “Internet Advertising: Is Anyone Watching,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, Vol. 17, No. 4, 2003, pp. 8-23.
[33] M. Dahlen, A. Rasch and S. Rosengren, “Love at First Site? A Study of Website Advertising Effectiveness,” Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 43, No. 1, 2003, pp. 25-33.
[34] M. Dahlen, Y. Ekborn and N. Morner, “To Click or Not to Click: An Empirical Study of Response to Banner Ads for High & Low Involvement Products,” Consumption Markets and Culture, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2000, pp. 57-76. doi:10.1080/10253866.2000.9670349
[35] W. Gong and L. M. Maddox, “Measuring Web Advertising Effectiveness in China,” Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 43, No. 1, 2003, pp. 34-49.
[36] F. Xie, N. Donthu, R. Lohtia and T. Osmonbekov, “Emotional Appeal and Incentive Offering in Banner Advertisements,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, Vol. 4, No. 2, 2004, p. 6.
[37] F. Calisir and D. Karaali, “The Impacts of Banner Location, Banner Content and Navigation Style on Banner Recognition,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 24, No. 2, 2008, pp. 535-543. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2007.02.019
[38] C. Yoo and K. Kim, “Processing of Animation in Online Banner Advertising: The Roles of Cognitive and Emotional Responses,” Journal of Interactive Marketing, Vol. 19, No. 4, 2005, pp. 18-34. doi:10.1002/dir.20047
[39] J. Chen, W. Ross, D. Yen and L. Akhapon, “The Effect of Types of Banner Ad, Web Localization, and Customer Involvement on Internet Users’ Attitudes,” Cyberpsychology & Behavior, Vol. 12, No. 1, 2009, pp. 71-73. doi:10.1089/cpb.2008.0199
[40] A. Sigel, G. Braun and M. Sena, “The Impact of Banner Ad Styles On Interaction And Click-Through Rates,” Issues in Information Systems, Vol. 9, No. 2, 2008, pp. 337-342.
[41] K. Burns and R. Lutz, “Web Users’ Perceptions of and Attitudes toward Online Advertising Formats,” International Journal of Internet Marketing and Advertising, Vol. 4, No. 4, 2008, pp. 281-301. doi:10.1504/IJIMA.2008.019150
[42] R. Lohtia, N. Donthu and E. Hershberger, “The Impact of Content and Design Elements on Banner Advertising Click-Through Rates,” Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 43, No. 4, 2003, pp. 410-418.
[43] G. Ryu, E. Lim, L. Tan and Y. Han, “Preattentive Processing of Banner Advertisements: The Role of Modality, Location, and Interference,” Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2007, pp. 6-18. doi:10.1016/j.elerap.2005.11.001
[44] B. Huhmann, “Visual Complexity in Banner Ads: The Role of Color, Photography, and Animation,” Visual Communication Quarterly, Vol. 10, No. 3, 2003, pp. 10-17. doi:10.1080/15551390309363510
[45] R. Moore, C. Stammerjohan and R. Coulter, “Banner Advertiser-Web Site Context Congruity and Color Effects on Attention and Attitudes,” Journal of Advertising, Vol. 34, No. 2, 2003, pp. 71-84.
[46] L. Sherman and J. Deighton, “Banner Advertising: Measuring Effectiveness and Optimizing Placement,” Journal of Interactive Marketing, Vol. 15, No. 2, 2001, pp. 60-64. doi:10.1002/dir.1011
[47] FeaturedUsers, “Frequently Asked Questions: Featured Users,” 2009. http://featuredusers.com/faq#featuredUsers
[48] S. Borgatti, M. Everett and L. Freeman, “Ucinet for Windows: Software for Social Network Analysis,” Cambridge, 2009.
[49] P. Chatterjee, D. Hoffman and T. Novak, “Modeling the Clickstream: Implications for Web-Based Advertising Efforts,” Marketing Science, Vol. 22, No. 4, 2003, pp. 520-541. doi:10.1287/mksc.22.4.520.24906
[50] J. Chandon, M. Chtourou and D. Fortin, “Effects of Configuration and Exposure Levels on Responses to Web Advertisements,” Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 43, No. 2, 2003, pp. 217-229.
[51] C. Cho, “How Advertising Works on the WWW: Modified Elaboration Likelihood Model,” Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, Vol. 21, No. 1, 1999, pp. 34-50. doi:10.1080/10641734.1999.10505087
[52] P. Chatterjee, “Are Unclicked Ads Wasted? Enduring Effects of Banner and Pop-Up Ad Exposures on Brand Memory and Attitudes,” Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, Vol. 9, No, 1, 2008, pp. 56-61.
[53] J. Murphy, C. Hofacker and Y. Racine, “Testing Position Effects and Copy to Increase Web Page Visits,” Information Technology & Tourism, Vol. 8, No. 1, 2006, pp. 3-13. doi:10.3727/109830506778193869
[54] N. Razzouk and V. Seitz, “Banner Advertising and Consumer Recall: An Empirical Study,” Journal of Promotion Management, Vol. 9, No. 1-2, 2003, pp. 71-80. doi:10.1300/J057v09n01_07
[55] J. Wang and R. Day, “The Effects of Attention Inertia on Advertisements on the WWW,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 23, No. 3, 2007, pp. 1390-1407. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2004.12.014
[56] R. Dewan, M. Freimer and J. Zhang, “Management and Valuation of Advertisement-Supported Web Sites,” Journal of Management Information Systems, Vol. 19, No. 3, 2003, pp. 87-98.
[57] FeaturedUsers, “Frequently Asked Questions: Publishers,” 1979. http://featuredusers.com/faq#featuredUsers
[58] K. Burns and R. Lutz, “The Function of Format: Consumer Responses to Six On-Line Advertising Formats,” Journal of Advertising, Vol. 35, No. 1, 2006, pp. 53-63. doi:10.2753/JOA0091-3367350104
[59] R. Lohtia, N. Donthu and I. Yaveroglu, “Evaluating the Efficiency of Internet Banner Advertisements,” Journal of Business Research, Vol. 60, No. 4, 2007, pp. 365-370. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2006.10.023
[60] M. Hupfer and A. Grey, “Getting Something for Nothing: The Impact of a Sample Offer and User Mode on Banner Ad Response,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2006, pp. 105-117.
[61] E. Plakoyiannaki, K. Mathioudaki, P. Dimitratos and Y. Zotos, “Images of Women in Online Advertisements of Global Products: Does Sexism Exist?” Journal of Business Ethics, Vol. 83, No. 1, 2008, pp. 101-112. doi:10.1007/s10551-007-9651-6
[62] J. Severn, G. Belch and M. Belch, “The Effects of Sexual and Non-Sexual Advertising Appeals and Information on Cognitive Processing and Communication Effectiveness,” Journal of Advertising, Vol. 19, No. 1, 1990, pp. 14-22.
[63] R. Kerin, W. Lundstrom, J. William and D. Sciglimpaglia, “Women in Advertisements: Retrospect and Prospect,” Journal of Advertising, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1979, pp. 37-42.
[64] V. Krebs, “Social Network Analysis, A Brief Introduction,” 2009. http://www.analytictech.com/networks/egonet.htm
[65] P. Danaher and G. Mullarkey, “Factors Affecting Online Advertising Recall: A Study of Students,” Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 43, No. 3, 2003, pp. 252-267. doi:10.1017/S0021849903030319
[66] K. Yang, “Effects of Consumer Motives on Search Behavior Using Internet Advertising,” CyberPsychology & Behavior, Vol. 7, No. 4, 2008, pp. 430-442. doi:10.1089/cpb.2004.7.430

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.