Share This Article:

Toward a Test Protocol for Conducted Energy Weapons

DOI: 10.4236/mi.2013.21002    4,011 Downloads   8,076 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Conducted Energy Weapons (CEWs), such as those manufactured by TASER International Inc., are seeing increased use by law enforcement agencies as a less lethal force option; but, at the same time, these weapons are also seeing an increased level of concern in terms of their safety of use. In order to enable consistent evaluation of CEW performance, a systematic protocol for testing the electrical output of such weapons is required. In this paper, we propose a test specification for CEWs, designed to calculate the key performance and electrical safety parameters. The weapon is fired into a specified load, and current or voltage data are acquired, from which a set of electrical parameters are calculated and recorded. The protocol is based on experience of testing 6000 CEWs in the labs affiliated with the authors. This test protocol is designed to enable systematic testing, evaluation and research on CEW’s, including identification of weapons which are out of specification, determination of changes in weapon characteristics over time, and evaluation of weapons post-incident. Based on the proposed test protocol, we evaluate and report on electrical output produced by 208 X26TM and128 M26TM TASER? weapons. Results are shown in terms of proposed summary parameters and in terms of manufacturer’s performance specifications.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

A. Adler, D. Dawson, R. Evans, L. Garland, M. Miller, I. Sinclair and R. Youmaran, "Toward a Test Protocol for Conducted Energy Weapons," Modern Instrumentation, Vol. 2 No. 1, 2013, pp. 7-15. doi: 10.4236/mi.2013.21002.

References

[1] D. Panescu, R. A. Stratbucker, “Current Flow in the Human Body,” In: M. W. Kroll and J. D. Ho, Eds., Taser Conducted Electrical Weapons: Physiology, Pathology and the Law, Springer, Berlin, 2009. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-85475-5_6
[2] A. J. Dennis, D. J. Valentino, R. J. Walter, K. K. Nagy, J. Winners, F. Bokhari, D. E. Wiley, K. T. Joseph and R. R. Roberts, “Acute Effects of TASER X26 Discharges in a Swine Model,” Journal of Trauma Injury, Infection, and Critical Care, Vol. 63, No. 3, 2007, pp. 581-590. doi:10.1097/TA.0b013e3180683c16
[3] S. J. Holden, R. D. Sheridan, T. J. Coffey, R. A. Scaramuzza and P. Diamantopoulos, “Electromagnetic Modelling of Current Flow in the Heart from TASER Devices and the Risk of Cardiac Dysrhythmias,” Physics in Medicine & Biology, Vol. 52, No. 24, 2007, Article ID: 7193-7209. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/52/24/001
[4] D. Lakkireddy, D. Wallick, A. Verma, K. Rytschon, W. Kowalewski, O. Wazni, J. Butany, D. Martin and P. Tchou, “Cardiac Effects of Electrical Stun Guns: Does Position of Barbs Contact Make a Difference?” Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology, Vol. 31, No. 4, 2008, pp. 398-408. doi:10.1111/j.1540-8159.2008.01008.x
[5] K. Nanthakumar, I. M. Billingsly, S. Masse, P. Dorian, D. Cameron, V. S. Chauhan, E. Dowrar and E. Sevaptsidis, “Cardiac Electrophysiological Consequences of Neuromuscular Incapacitating Device Discharges,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, Vol. 48, No. 4, 2006, pp. 798-804. doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2006.02.076
[6] J. D. Ho, J. R. Miner, D. R. Lakireddy, L. L. Bultman and W.G. Heegaard, “Cardiovascular and Physiologic Effects of Conducted Electrical Weapon Discharge in Resting Adults,” Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 13, No. 6, 2006, pp. 589-595. doi:10.1111/j.1553-2712.2006.tb01016.x
[7] J. D. Ho, D. M. Dawes, L. L. Bultman, R. M. Moscati, T. A. Janchar and J. R. Miner, “Prolonged TASER Use on Exhausted Humans Does Not Worsen Markers of Acidosis,” American Journal of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 27, No. 4, 2009, pp. 413-418. doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2008.03.017
[8] S. D. Levine, C. M. Sloane, T. C. Chan, J. V. Dunford and G. M. Vilke, “Cardiac Monitoring of Human Subjects Exposed to the Taser,” The Journal of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 33, No. 2, 2007, pp. 113-117. doi:10.1016/j.jemermed.2007.02.018
[9] D. M. Dawes and J. M. Ho, “The Neuroendocrine Effects of the TASER X26: A Brief Report,” Forensic Science International, Vol. 183, No. 1, 2009, pp. 14-19. doi:10.1016/j.forsciint.2008.09.015
[10] J. Strote, R. Campbell, J. Pease, M. S. Hamman and R. Hutson, “The Role of Tasers in Police Restraint-Related Deaths,” Annals of Emergency Medicine, Vol. 46, No. 3, 2005, p. 85. doi:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2005.06.314
[11] H. Sun and J. G. Webster, “Estimating Neuromuscular Stimulation within the Human Torso with Taser Stimulus,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, Vol. 52, No. 21, 2007, pp. 6401-6411. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/52/21/004
[12] J. Y. Wu, H. Sun, A. P. O’Rourke, S. Huebner, P. S. Rahko, J. A. Will and J. G. Webster, “Taser Blunt Probe Dart-to-Heart Distance Causing Ventricular Fibrillation in Pigs,” The IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, Vol. 55, No. 12, 2008, Article ID: 2768-2771.
[13] P. J. Kim and W. H. Franklin, “Ventricular Fibrillation after Stun-Gun Discharge,” The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 353, 2005, pp. 958-959. doi:10.1056/NEJMc051625
[14] J. R. Jauchem, C. W. Beason and M. C. Cook, “Acute Effects of an Alternative Electroniccontrol-Device Waveform in Swine,” Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology, Vol. 5 No. 1, 2009, pp. 2-10. doi:10.1007/s12024-009-9076-x
[15] J. R. Jauchem, “An Animal Model to Investigate Effectiveness and Safety of Conducted Energy Weapons (Including TASER Devices),” Journal of Forensic Sciences, Vol. 55, No. 2, 2010, pp. 521-526. doi:10.1111/j.1556-4029.2009.01308.x
[16] L. M. Haegeli, L. D. Sterns, D. C. Adam and R. A. Leather, “Effect of a Taser Shot to the Chest of a Patient with an Implantable Defibrillator,” Heart Rhythm, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2006, pp. 339-341. doi:10.1016/j.hrthm.2005.12.012
[17] B. E. Mangus, L. Y. Shen, S. D. Helmer, J. Maher and R. S. Smith, “Taser and Taser Associated Injuries: A Case Series,” American Surgeon, Vol. 74, No. 9, 2009, pp. 862-865.
[18] T. R. Braidwood, “Restoring Public Confidence: Restricting the Use of Conducted Energy Weapons in British Columbia,” 2009. www.braidwoodinquiry.ca/report/,
[19] Taser International, “TASER X26E Series Electronic Control Device Specification Version 2.0 Online,” Taser International, Scottsdale, 2009.
[20] J. P. Reilly, A. M. Diamant and J. Comeaux, “Dosimetry Considerations for Electrical Stun Devices,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, Vol. 54, No. 5, 2009, pp. 1319-1335. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/54/5/015
[21] International Electrotechnical Commission, “Effects of Current on Human Beings and Livestock—Part 2: Special Effects,” International Electrotechnical Commission, Geneva, 2007.
[22] P. Savard, R. Walter and A. Dennis, “Analysis of the Quality and Safety of the Taser X26 devices tested for Radio-Canada/Canadian Broadcasting Corporation by National Technical Systems, Test Report 41196-08.SRC,” 2008. http://www.cbc.ca/news/pdf/taser-analysis-v1.5.pdf
[23] A. Adler, D.P. Dawson, R. Evans, L. Garland, M. Miller, I. Sinclair, “Test Procedure for Conducted Energy Weapons: Version 1.1,” 2010. www.curve.carleton.ca/papers/2010/CEWTest-Procdure-2010-ver1.1.pdf.
[24] Creative Commons, “Creative Commons Attribution,” 2004. http://www. creativecommons. org/licenses/by/3.0.
[25] P. Rahmati, D. Dawson and A. Adler, “Towards a Portable, Memory-Efficient Test System for Conductive Energy Weapons,” CCECE, Ottaw, 2011.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.