Share This Article:

Measurement of the exercising blood flow during rhythmical muscle contractions assessed by Doppler ultrasound: Methodological considerations

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:1034KB) PP. 779-788
DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2012.512A098    3,903 Downloads   6,634 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Given the recent technological developments, ultra-sound Doppler can provide valuable measurements of arterial blood flow with high temporal resolution. In a clinical setting, measurements of hemodynamics is used to monitor, diagnose and manage changes in blood velocity profile for cardiac valve disease, relatively large vessel stenosis and other cardiovascular diseases. In health science and preventive medicine for cardiovascular disease with exercise therapy, evaluation of cardiac and vascular function is a useful indicator not only at rest but also during exercise, leading to improved exercise tolerance as well as physical activity. During exercise, the increase in oxygen uptake (calculated as product of arterial blood flow to the exercising limb and the arteriovenous oxygen difference) is directly proportional to the work performed. The increased oxygen demand is met through a central mechanism, an increase in cardiac output and blood pressure, as well as a peripheral mechanism, an increase in vascular conductance and oxygen extraction (major part in the whole exercising muscles) from the blood. Therefore, the determination of the local blood flow dynamics (potential oxygen supply) feeding to rhythmic muscle contractions can contribute to the understanding of the factors limiting the work capacity including, for instance the muscle metabolism, substance utilization and vasodilatation in the exercising muscle. Using non-invasive measures of pulsed Doppler ultrasound the validity of evaluating blood velocity/flow in the fore- arm or lower limb conduit artery feeding to the mus- cle is demonstrated during rhythmic muscle exercise; however the exercising blood velocity profile (fast Fourier transformation) due to muscle contractions is

always seen as a physiological variability or fluctuations in the magnitude in blood velocity due to the spontaneous muscle contraction and relaxation induced changes in force curve intensity. Considering the above mentioned variation in blood velocity in relation to muscle contractions may provide valuable information for evaluating the blood flow dynamics during exercise. This review presents the methodological concept that underlines the methodological considerations for determining the exercising blood velocity/flow in the limb conduit artery in relation the exercise model of dynamic leg exercise assessed by pulsed Doppler ultrasonography.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Osada, T. , Saltin, B. , Mortensen, S. and Rådegran, G. (2012) Measurement of the exercising blood flow during rhythmical muscle contractions assessed by Doppler ultrasound: Methodological considerations. Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, 5, 779-788. doi: 10.4236/jbise.2012.512A098.

References

[1] WallØe, L. and Wesche, J. (1988) Time course and magnitude of blood flow changes in the human quadriceps muscles during and following rhythmic exercise. Journal of Physiology (London), 405, 257-273.
[2] Shoemaker, J.K., Hodge, L. and Hughson, R.L. (1994) Cardiorespiratory kinetics and femoral artery blood velocity during dynamic knee extension exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology, 77, 2625-2632.
[3] Rådegran, G. (1997) Ultrasound Doppler estimates of femoral artery blood flow during dynamic knee extensor exercise in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology, 83, 1383-1388.
[4] Osada, T., Katsumura, T., Hamaoka, T., Inoue, S., Esaki, K., Sakamoto, A., Murase, N., Kajiyama, J., Shimomitsu, T. and Iwane, H. (1999) Reduced blood flow in abdominal viscera measured by Doppler ultrasound during one-legged knee extension. Journal of Applied Physiology, 86, 709-719.
[5] Osada, T., Iwane, H., Katsumura, T., Murase, N., Higuchi, H., Sakamoto, A., Hamaoka, T. and Shimomitsu, T. (2012) Relationship between reduced lower abdominal blood flows and heart rate in recovery following cycling exercise. Acta Physiologica, 204, 344-353. doi:10.1111/j.1748-1716.2011.02349.x
[6] Saltin, B., Rådegran, G., Koskolou, M.D. and Roach, R.C. (1998) Skeletal muscle blood flow in humans and its regulation during exercise. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 162, 421-436. doi:10.1046/j.1365-201X.1998.0293e.x
[7] Sacchetti, M., Saltin, B., Osada, T. and Van Hall, G. (2002) Intramuscular fatty acid metabolism in contracting and non-contracting human skeletal muscle. Journal of Physiology (London), 540, 387-395. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2001.013912
[8] Steensberg, A., Febbraio, M.A., Osada, T., Schjerling, P., Van Hall, G., Saltin, B. and Pedersen, B.K. (2001) Interleukin-6 production in contracting human skeletal muscle is influenced by pre-exercise muscle glycogen content. Journal of Physiology (London), 537, 633-639. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7793.2001.00633.x
[9] Osada, T. and Rådegran, G. (2002) Femoral artery inflow in relation to external and total work rate at different knee extensor contraction rates. Journal of Applied Physiology, 92, 1325-1330.
[10] Andersen, P. and Saltin, B. (1985) Maximal perfusion of skeletal muscle in man. Journal of Physiology (London), 366, 233-249.
[11] Gill, R.W. (1985) Measurement of blood flow by ultrasound: Accuracy and sources of error. Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology, 11, 625-641. doi:10.1016/0301-5629(85)90035-3
[12] Hughson, R.L., MacDonald, M.J., Shoemaker, J.K. and Borkhoff, C. (1997) Alveolar oxygen uptake and blood flow dynamics in knee extension ergometry. Methods of Information in Medicine, 36, 364-367.
[13] Osada, T. (2004) Muscle contraction-induced limb blood flow variability during dynamic knee extensor. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36, 1149-1158. doi:10.1249/01.MSS.0000132272.36832.6A
[14] Rådegran, G. and Saltin, B. (1998) Muscle blood flow at onset of dynamic exercise in humans. American Journal of Physiology Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 274, H314-H322.
[15] Robergs, R.A., Icenogle, M.V., Hudson, T.L. and Greene, E.R. (1997) Temporal inhomogeneity in brachial artery blood flow during forearm exercise. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29, 1021-1027. doi:10.1097/00005768-199708000-00006
[16] Isnard, R., Lechat, P., Kalotka, H., Chikr, H., Fitoussi, S., Salloum, J., Golmard, J.-L., Thomas, D. and Komajda, M. (1996) Muscular blood flow response to submaximal leg exercise in normal subjects and in patients with heart failure. Journal of Applied Physiology, 81, 2571-2579.
[17] Leyk, D., Eßfeld, D., Baum, K. and Stegemann, J. (1992) Influence of calf muscle contractions on blood flow parameters measured in the arteria femoralis. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 13, 588-593. doi:10.1055/s-2007-1024571
[18] MacDonald, M.J., Shoemaker, J.K., Tschakovsky, M.E. and Hughson, R.L. (1998) Alveolar oxygen uptake and femoral artery blood flow dynamics in upright and supine leg exercise in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology, 85, 1622-1628.
[19] SjØgaard, G., Kiens, B., JØrgensen, K. and Saltin, B. (1986) Intramuscular pressure, EMG and blood flow during low-level prolonged static contraction in man. Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 128, 475-484. doi:10.1111/j.1748-1716.1986.tb08002.x
[20] Andersen, P., Adams, R.P., SjØgaard, G., Thorboe, A. and Saltin, B. (1985) Dynamic knee extension as model for study of isolated exercising muscle in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology, 59, 1647-1653.
[21] Cronestrand, R. (1970) Leg blood flow at rest and during exercise after reconstruction for occlusive disease. Scandinavian Journal of Thoracic Cardiovascular Surgery, 4, 1-24.
[22] Jorfeldt, L., Juhlin-Dannfelt, A., Pernow, B. and Wassén, E. (1978) Determination of human leg blood flow: A thermodilution technique based on femoral venous bolus injection. Clinical Science and Molecular Medicine, 54, 517-523. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(64)91518-1
[23] Lassen, N.A., Linbjerg, I. and Munck, O. (1964) Measurement of blood flow through skeletal muscle by intramuscular injection of xenon 133. Lancet, 1, 686-689.
[24] Rådegran, G., Pilegaard, H., Nielsen, J.J. and Bangsbo, J. (1998) Microdialysis ethanol removal reflects probe recovery rather than local blood flow in skeletal muscle. Journal of Applied Physiology, 85, 751-757.
[25] Boushel, R., Langberg, H., Olesen, J., Nowak, M., Simonsen, L., Bülow, J. and Kjær, M. (2000) Regional blood flow during exercise in humans measured by near-infrared spectroscopy and indocyanine green. Journal of Applied Physiology, 89, 1868-1878.
[26] Ruotsalainen, U., Raitakari, M., Nuutila, P., Oikonen, V., Sipilä, H., Teräs, M., Knuuti, M.J., Bloomfield, P.M. and Iida, H. (1997) Quantitative blood flow measurement of skeletal muscle using oxygen-15-water and PET. Journal of Nuclear Medicine, 38, 314-319.
[27] Jensen, B.R., SjØgaard, G., Bornmyr, S., Arborelius, M. and JØrgensen, K. (1995) Intramuscular laser-Doppler flowmetry in the supraspinatus muscle during isometric contractions. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology, 71, 373-378. doi:10.1007/BF00240420
[28] Rådegran, G. (1999) Limb and skeletal muscle blood flow measurements at rest and during exercise in human subjects. Proceedings of Nutrition Society, 58, 887-898. doi:10.1017/S0029665199001196
[29] Osada, T. and Rådegran, G. (2006) Differences in exercising limb blood flow variability between cardiac and muscle contraction cycle related analysis during dynamic knee extensor. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 46, 590-597.
[30] Osada, T. and Rådegran, G. (2006) Alterations in the blood velocity profile influence the blood flow response during muscle contractions and relaxations. Journal of Physiological Science, 56, 195-203. doi:10.2170/physiolsci.RP002905

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.