Share This Article:

Increasing the Adaptive Capacity in Unembanked Neighborhoods? An Exploration into Stakeholder Support for Adaptive Measures in Rotterdam, The Netherlands

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:206KB) PP. 181-193
DOI: 10.4236/ajcc.2012.14015    3,623 Downloads   5,987 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Cities in deltas are vulnerable to climate change, especially their unembanked neighborhoods that are not protected by dikes. Rising sea levels and extreme water levels in the rivers can lead to the flooding of these urban areas. The Netherlands has a long history in water management. However, building dikes and the elevation of land are traditionally treated as rather stand-alone measures. Attention is rarely paid to the surrounding area, let alone to the complex context of cities and certainly not to disadvantaged neighborhoods. Yet, inner-city area redevelopment may provide opportunities to integrate flood management in these planning processes. In order to investigate the support of stakeholders for risk-reducing adaptive measures and more resilient measures, we did research in an unembanked inner-city area in the city of Rotterdam (The Netherlands), in which we conducted in-depth interviews with the central stakeholders. The main conclusion is that the most important barriers for integrating climate adaptation measures into that neighborhood are the fragmentation of water-safety policy (e.g. elevation of rebuilding locations) and the hierarchical governance arrangement in water management. This type of fragmentation led on its turn to fragmentation with other policy goals for the neighborhood. It also led to fragmentation between different areas in the same neighborhood that received political attention and those that are excluded from water-safety policy. This questions the approach in terms of social justice. An important side effect is that this governance arrangement also restricted innovation towards climate adaptation. Therefore, integrating water-safety policies in urban planning (in its capacity as a more integrative and comprehensive spatial approach) should be considered the best option to increase the adaptive capacity in delta cities. Not only can the negative effects in terms of policy fragmentation be dealt with effectively, but also spatial fragmentation can be tackled.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

A. Kokx and T. Spit, "Increasing the Adaptive Capacity in Unembanked Neighborhoods? An Exploration into Stakeholder Support for Adaptive Measures in Rotterdam, The Netherlands," American Journal of Climate Change, Vol. 1 No. 4, 2012, pp. 181-193. doi: 10.4236/ajcc.2012.14015.

References

[1] Planbureau voor de Leefomgeving (PBL) (Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency), “Een Delta in Beweging. Bouwstenen voor een Klimaatbestendige Ontwikkeling van Nederland,” PBL, Den Haag, 2011.
[2] H. Meyer, A.-L. Nilessen and W. Zonneveld, “Rotterdam: A City and a Mainport on the Edge of a Delta,” European Planning Studies, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2012, pp. 71-94. doi:10.1080/09654313.2011.638498
[3] W. N. Adger, et al., “Assessment of Adaptation Practices, Options, Constraints and Capacity. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,” In: M. L. Parry, O. F. Canziani, J. P. Palutikof, P. J. van der Linden and C. E. Hanson, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2007, pp. 717-743.
[4] N. Brooks, W. N. Adger and P. M. Kelly, “The Determinants of Vulnerability and Adaptive Capacity at the National Level and Implications for Adaptation,” Global Environmental Change, Vol. 15, No. 2, 2005, pp. 151163. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2004.12.006
[5] H. Meyer, “Reinventing the Dutch Delta, Complexity and Conflicts,” Built Environment, Vol. 35, No. 4, 2009, pp. 432-451. doi:10.2148/benv.35.4.432
[6] H. Priemus and S. Davoudi, “Introduction to the Special Issue,” European Planning Studies, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2012, pp. 1-6. doi:10.1080/09654313.2011.638495
[7] A. Kokx, “Between Dreams and Reality, Urban Governance in the Process of Dutch Urban Restructuring,” Ph.D Thesis, Nederlandse Geografische Studies 394. Knag/Faculteit Geowetenschappen, Utrecht University, Utrecht, 2010.
[8] J. Evans, “Resilience, Ecology and Adaptation in the Experimental City, Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, Vol. 36, No. 2, 2011, pp. 223-237. doi:10.1111/j.1475-5661.2010.00420.x
[9] S. Pickett, M. Cadenasso and J. Grove, “Resilient Cities: Meaning, Models, and Metaphor for Integrating the Ecological, Socio-Economic, and Planning Realms,” Landscape and Urban Planning, Vol. 69, No. 4, 2004, pp. 369-384. doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2003.10.035
[10] H. Blanco, et al., “Hot, Congested, Crowded and Diverse: Emerging Research Agendas in Planning,” Progress in Planning, Vol. 71, No. 4, 2009, pp. 153-205. doi:10.1016/j.progress.2009.03.001
[11] W. N. Adger, et al., “Are There Social Limits to Adaptation to Climate Change?” Climate Change, Vol. 93, No. 3, 2009, pp. 335-354. doi:10.1007/s10584-008-9520-z
[12] J. De Boer, “On the Relationship Between Risk Perception and Climate Proofing,” Knowlegde for Climate (KfC) 013, 2010.
[13] J. Edelenbos and E. H. Klijn, “Managing Stakeholder Involvement in Decision-Making: A Comparative Analysis of Six Interactive Processes in the Netherlands,” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, Vol. 16, No. 3, 2005, pp. 417-446. doi:10.1093/jopart/mui049
[14] M. Boedeltje, “Draagvlak Door Interactief Bestuur: Fictie of Feit?” Ph.D thesis, Twente University, Enschede, 2009.
[15] J. Pierre, “Comparative Urban Governance: Uncovering Complex Causalities,” Urban Affairs Review, Vol. 40, No. 4, 2005, pp. 446-462. doi:10.1177/1078087404273442
[16] W. N. Adger, N. Arnell and E. Tompkins, “Successful Adaptation to Climate Change Across Scales,” Global Environmental Change, Vol. 15, No. 2, 2005, pp. 77-86. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2004.12.005
[17] H. M. Füssel, “Adaptation Planning for Climate Change: Concepts, Assessment Approaches, and Key Lessons,” Sustainability Science, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2007, pp. 265-275.
[18] W. N. Adger, “Climate Change, Human Well-Being and Insecurity,” New Political Economy, Vol. 15, No. 2, 2010, pp. 275-292. doi:10.1080/13563460903290912
[19] C. Jacquier, “On Relationships between Integrated Policies for Sustainable Urban Development and Urban Governance,” Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, Vol. 96, No. 4, 2005, pp. 363-367. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9663.2005.00469.x
[20] H. Mees and P. Driessen, “Adaptation to Climate Change in Urban Areas: Climate-Greening London, Rotterdam, and Toronto,” Climate Law, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2011, pp. 251280.
[21] A. Kokx and T. Spit, “The Production of Unproductive Policy-Making: Climate Adaptation, EU Projects, Policy Entrepreneurs and Policy Change: the Dutch Experience,” Unpublished.
[22] J. Woltjer and N. Al, “Integrating Water Management and Spatial Planning,” Journal of the American Planning Association, Vol. 72, No. 2, 2007, pp. 211-222. doi:10.1080/01944360708976154
[23] Ministerie van Volkshuisvesting, Ruimtelijke Ordening en Milieu (VROM), “Doorwerking van Klimaatadaptatie in Ruimtelijke Plannen. Een Monitoring van de Gemeentelijke Praktijk,” VROM-Inspectie, Ministerie van Ruimtelijke Ordening en Milieubeheer, Den Haag, 2010.
[24] P. P. J. Driessen, et al., “Beleids en Rechtswetenschappelijke Aspecten van Klimaatadaptatie,” Kennis voor Klimaat [KvK], Wageningen, 2011.
[25] T. Spit and P. Zoete, “Ruimtelijke Ordening in Nederland. Een Wetenschappelijke Inleiding in het Vakgebied,” Geheel Herziene Editie, Sdu Uitgevers, Den Haag, 2009.
[26] C. Folke, T. Hahn, P. Olson and J. Norberg, “Adaptive Governance of Social-Ecological Systems,” Annual Review of Environment and Resources, Vol. 30, 2005, pp. 441-474. doi:10.1146/annurev.energy.30.050504.144511
[27] F. B. Van der Meer and J. Edelenbos, “Evaluation in Multi-Actor Policy Processes, Accountability, Learning and Cooperation,” Evaluation, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2006, pp. 201-218. doi:10.1177/1356389006066972
[28] S. Moser and J. Ekstrom, “A Framework to Diagnose Barriers to Climate Change Adaptation,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA (PNAS), Vol. 107, No. 51, 2010, pp. 22026-22031. doi:10.1073/pnas.1007887107
[29] R. Rhodes, “The New Governance: Governing Without Government,” Political Studies, Vol. 44, No. 4, 1996, pp. 652-667. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9248.1996.tb01747.x
[30] H. Runhaar, P. Driessen and L. Snoer, “Sustainable Urban Development and the Challenge of Policy Integration: an Assessment of Planning Tools for Integrating Spatial and Environmental Planning in the Netherlands,” Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, Vol. 36, No. 3, 2009, pp. 417-431. doi:10.1068/b34052
[31] J. Carter, “Climate Change Adaptation in European Cities,” Environmental Sustainability, Vol. 3, No. 3, 2011, pp. 193-198.
[32] C. Pahl-Wostl, “Transitions towards Adaptive Management of Water Facing Climate and Global Change,” Water Resources Management, Vol. 21, No. 1, 2007, pp. 4962. doi:10.1007/s11269-006-9040-4
[33] C. Pahl-Wostl, “A Conceptual Framework for Analysing Adaptive Capacity and Multi-Level Learning Processes in Resource Governance Regimes,” Global Environmental Change, Vol. 19, No. 3, 2009, pp. 354-365. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2009.06.001
[34] G. Teisman, A. Van Buuren and L. Gerrits, “Managing Complex Governance Systems, Dynamics, Self-Organisation and Coevolutions in Public Investments,” Routledge, London, 2009.
[35] M. Mens, F. Klijn, K. De Bruijn and E. Van Beek, “The Meaning of System Robustness of Flood Risk Management,” Environmental Science & Policy, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2011, pp. 1121-1131. doi:10.1016/j.envsci.2011.08.003
[36] D. Nelson, W. Adger and K. Brown, “Adaptation to Environmental Change: Contributions of a Resilience Framework,” Annual Review of Environment and Resources, Vol. 32, 2007, pp. 395-419. doi:10.1146/annurev.energy.32.051807.090348
[37] R. Lempert, D. Groves, S. Popper and S. Bankes, “A General, Analytic Method for Generating Robust Strategies and Narrative Scenarios,” Management Science, Vol. 52, No. 4, 2006, pp. 514-528. doi:10.1287/mnsc.1050.0472
[38] S. Dessai and M. Hulme, “Assessing the Robustness of Adaptation Decisions to Climate Change Uncertainties: A Case Study on Water Resources Management in the East of England,” Global Environmental Change, Vol. 17, No. 1, 2007, pp. 59-72. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2006.11.005
[39] J. Wardekker, A. de Jong, J. Knoop and J. van der Sluijs, “Operationalising a Resilience Approach to Adapting an Urban Delta to Uncertain Climate Changes,” Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Vol. 77, No. 6, 2010, pp. 987-998. doi:10.1016/j.techfore.2009.11.005
[40] I. Lorenzoni, S. Nicholson-Cole and L. Whitmarsh, “Barriers to Engaging with Climate Change among the UK Public and Their Policy Implications,” Global Environmental Change, Vol. 17, No. 3/4, 2007, pp. 445-459. doi:10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2007.01.004
[41] R. Biesbroek, J. Klostermann, C. Termeer and P. Kabat,” Barriers to Climate Change Adaptation in the Netherlands,” Climate Law, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2011, pp. 181-199.
[42] M. Mintrom and P. Norman, “Policy Entrepreneurship and Policy Change,” The Policy Studies Journal, Vol. 37, No. 4, 2009, pp. 649-667. doi:10.1111/j.1541-0072.2009.00329.x
[43] D. Huitema and S. Meierink, “Realizing Water Transitions: The Role of Policy Entrepreneurs in Water Policy Change,” Ecology and Society, Vol. 15, No. 2, article 26, 2010. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol15/iss2/art26.
[44] J. Kingdon, “Agendas, Alternatives and Public Policies,” 2nd Edition, HarperCollins, New York, 1995.
[45] E.-H. Klijn and J. Koppenjan, “Public Management and Policy Networks, Foundations for a Network Approach to Governance,” Public Management, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2000, pp. 135-158. doi:10.1080/146166700411201
[46] J. Davies, “Local Governance and the Dialectics of Hierarchy, Market and Network,” Policy Studies, Vol. 26, No. 3/4, 2005, pp. 311-335. doi:10.1080/01442870500198379
[47] G. Stoker, “Governance as Theory: Five Propositions,” International Social Sciences Journal, Vol. 50, No. 155, 1998, pp. 17-28. doi:10.1111/1468-2451.00106
[48] J. March and J. P. Olsen, “Ambiguity and Choice in Organizations,” Universitets-Forlaget, Bergen, 1976, pp. 3853.
[49] P. Lascoumes and P. Le Galès, “Introduction: Understanding Public Policy Through Its Instruments—From the Nature of Instruments to the Sociology of Public Policy Instrumentation,” Governance: An International Journal of Policy, Administration, and Institutions, Vol. 20, No. 1, 2007, pp. 1-21. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0491.2007.00342.x
[50] C. Clarke, “Dissolving the Public Realm? The Logics and Limits of Neo-Liberalism,” Journal of Social Policy, Vol. 33, No.1, 2004, pp. 27-48. doi:10.1017/S0047279403007244
[51] M. Taylor, “Community Participation in the Real World: Opportunities and Pitfalls in New Governance Spaces,” Urban Studies, Vol. 44, No. 2, 2007, pp. 297-317. doi:10.1080/00420980601074987
[52] D. Huitema, et al., “Adaptive Water Governance: Assessing the Institutional Prescriptions of Adaptive (Co)Management from a Governance Perspective in Defining a Research Agenda,” Ecology and Society, Vol. 14, No. 1, Article 26, 2009. http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol14/iss1/art26/
[53] Wetenschappelijke Raad voor het Regeringsbeleid (WRR), “Vertrouwen in de Buurt,” WRR, Amsterdam University Press, Amsterdam, 2005.
[54] K. Williams, J. Joynt and D. Hopkins, “Adapting to Climate Change in the Compact City: The Suburban Challenge,” Built Environment, Vol. 36, No. 1, 2010, pp. 105114. doi:10.2148/benv.36.1.105
[55] E. Hamin and N. Gurran, “Urban Form and Climate Change: Balancing Adaptation and Mitigation in the US and Australia,” Habitat International, Vol. 33, No. 3, 2009, pp. 238-245. doi:10.1016/j.habitatint.2008.10.005
[56] F. Grazi, J. C. J. M. van den Bergh and J. N. van Ommeren, “An Empirical Analysis of Urban Form, Transport and Global Warming,” The Energy Journal, Vol. 29, No. 4, 2008, pp. 97-122. doi:10.5547/ISSN0195-6574-EJ-Vol29-No4-5
[57] K. Van Nieuwaal, P. P. J. Driessen, T. J. M. Spit and K. Termeer, “A State of the Art of Governance Literature on Adaptation to Climate Change: Towards a Research Agenda,” IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Vol. 6, No. 36, 2009, p. 362019.
[58] J. Koppenjan and E.-H. Klijn, “Managing Uncertainties in Networks. A Network Approach to Problem Solving and Decision Making,” Routledge, London, 2004.
[59] S. Hallegatte, F. Henriet and J. Corfee-Morlot, “The Economics of Climate Change. Impacts and Policy Benefits at City Scale: A Conceptual Framework,” Environmental Working Paper, OECD, Paris, 2008.
[60] L. Kamal-Chaoui and A. Robert, “Competitive Cities and Climate Change,” OECD Regional Development Working Papers, OECD, Paris, 2009.
[61] R. Willows and R. Connell, “Climate Adaptation: Risk, Uncertainty and Decision-Making,” UKCIP Technical Report, UKCIP, Oxford, 2003.
[62] S. Dessai and J. Van der Sluis, “Uncertainty and Climate Change. A Scoping Study,” Copernicus Institute, Utrecht University, Utrecht, 2007.
[63] C. Zevenbergen, W. Verbeek, B. Gersonius and S. Van Herk, “Challenges in Urban Flood management: Travelling across Spatial and Temporal Scales,” Flood Risk Management, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2008, pp. 81-88. doi:10.1111/j.1753-318X.2008.00010.x
[64] W. Verbeek, et al., “Flood Risk in Unembanked Areas, Synthesis,” Kennis voor Klimaat, Amsterdam, 2010.
[65] Gemeente Rotterdam, “Masterplan Kop van Feijenoord, Fase II Kop van Zuid,” Stadsontwikkeling, Gemeente Rotterdam, 2011.
[66] Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstaat (V&W), Ministerie van Volkshuishuisvesting, Ruimtelijke Ordening en Milieubeheer (VROM) en het Ministerie van Landbouw, Natuur en Voedselkwaliteit (LNV), “Beleidsnota Waterveiligheid 2009-2015,” Ministeries van V&W, VROM and LNV, Den Haag, 2009.
[67] Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstaat (V&W) & Ministerie van Volkshuishuisvesting, Ruimtelijke Ordening en Milieubeheer (VROM), “Beleidslijn Grote Rivieren,” Ministeries van V&W and VROM, Den Haag, 2006.
[68] K. Batterbee, et al., “Klaar Voor Hoog Water, Verkennend Onderzoek Naar Adaptieve Strategie?n in het Buitendijks Gebied in de Hotspot Rotterdam,” Kennis voor Klimaat 025, 2010.
[69] E. Van Bergeijk, A. Kokx, G. Bolt and R. Van Kempen, “Helpt Herstructurering? Effecten van Stedelijke Herstructurering op Wijken en Bewoners,” Eburon, Delft, 2008.
[70] W. N. Adger, “Social Capital, Collective Action, and Adaptation to Climate Change,” Economic Geography, Vol. 79, No. 4, 2003, pp. 387-404. doi:10.1111/j.1944-8287.2003.tb00220.x

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.