Share This Article:

“Fun, Fun, Fun”: Types of Fun, Attitudes to Fun, and their Relation to Personality and Biographical Factors

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:148KB) PP. 159-168
DOI: 10.4236/psych.2010.13021    6,192 Downloads   12,356 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

This study explores the psychologically neglected concept of fun, a concept that contributes strongly to many people’s perceptions of quality in life, and looks both at the different types of behaviour that people regard as fun and the atti-tudes that people have towards fun. Through focus groups and interviews, a 40-item attitude questionnaire was devel-oped and completed by 1100 people. Factor analysis identified five attitudinal factors, which were labelled as “Fun involving risk-taking”; “Fun dependent on fun people”; “Fun causing happiness”; “Money needed to have fun”; and “Spontaneity as fun”. These different factors showed different patterns of correlation with demographic and personality measures. The different types of situation that people described as fun were assessed by asking participants to use an adjective check-list to describe a situation they had found to be fun. Factor analysis identified five types of fun (“Sociability”, “Contentment”, “Achievement”, “Sensual” and “Ecstatic”), the different types correlating systematically with participants’ demography, personality and attitudes to fun. Although often used as if it were a single concept, “fun” is actually a complex phenomenon that has different meanings for different types of people.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

McManus, I. & Furnham, A. (2010). “Fun, Fun, Fun”: Types of Fun, Attitudes to Fun, and their Relation to Personality and Biographical Factors. Psychology, 1, 159-168. doi: 10.4236/psych.2010.13021.

References

[1] C. D. Bryant and C. J. Forsyth, “The Fun God: Sports, Recreation, Leisure, and Amusement in the United States,” Sociological Spectrum, Vol. 25, No. 2, 2005, pp. 197-211.
[2] A. E. Hamilton, “Psychology and ‘the Great God Fun’,” Julian Press, New York, 1955.
[3] E. R. Gritz, M. K. Tripp, A. S. James, R. B. Harrist, N. H. Mueller, R. M. Chamberlain, et al., “Effects of a Preschool Staff Intervention on Children’s Sun Protection: Outcomes of Sun Protection is Fun!” Health Education and Behavior, Vol. 34, No. 4, 2007, pp. 562-577.
[4] R. Prigo, “Making Physics Fun: Key Concepts, Classroom Activities, and Everyday Examples, Grades K-8,” Corwin Press, Thousand Oaks, 2007.
[5] T. Cook and E. Hess, “What the Camera Sees and from whose Perspective: Fun Methodologies for Engaging Chil- dren in Enlightening Adults,” Childhood: A Global Jour- nal of Child Research, Vol. 14, No. 1, 2007, pp. 29-45.
[6] G. Sim, S. MacFarlane and J. Read, “All Work and no Play: Measuring Fun, Usability, and Learning in Software for Children,” Computers and Education, Vol. 46, No. 3, 2006, pp. 235-248.
[7] C. Angell, O. Guttersrud, E. K. Henriksen and A. Isnes, “Physics: Frightful, but Fun: Pupils’ and Teachers’ Views of Physics and Physics Teaching,” Science Education, Vol. 88, No. 5, 2004, pp. 683-706.
[8] M. Davis, T. Baranowski, K. Resnicow, J. Baranowski, C. Doyle, M. Smith, et al., “Gimme 5 Fruit and Vegetables for Fun and Health: Process Evaluation,” Health Educa- tion and Behavior, Vol. 27, No. 2, 2000, pp. 167-176.
[9] K. A. Kendall-Tackett, “How to Write for a General Au- dience: A Guide for Academics who Want to Share their Knowledge with the World and Have Fun Doing it,” Ameri- can Psychological Association, Washington, D.C., 2007.
[10] L. A. Hayduk and D. N. Glaser, “Jiving the Four-Step, Waltzing around Factor Analysis, and Other Serious Fun,” Structural Equation Modeling, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2000, pp. 1- 35.
[11] M. Argyle, “My Secret List (Personal Communication to Adrian Furnham),” 2000.
[12] A. Furnham, “Fortitude,” In: D. Anderson, Ed., The Loss of Virtue, Social Affairs Unit, London, 1992, pp. 137-153.
[13] A. Furnham, K. Petrides and S. Spencer-Bowdage, “The Effects of Different Types of Social Desirability on the Identification of Repressors,” Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 33, No. 1, 2002, pp. 119-130.
[14] E. Deci and R. Ryan, “Intrinsic Motivation and Self-De- termination in Human Behavior,” Plenum Publishing, New York, 2008.
[15] A. Furnham, “The Psychology of Behaviour at Work,” Psychology Press, Hove, 2005.
[16] M. Argyle, “The Psychology of Happiness,” Routledge Publishing, London, 2001.
[17] D. Myers, “The Pursuit of Happiness,” Avon Publications, New York, 1992.
[18] A. Wessman and D. Ricks, “Mood and Personality,” Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1966.
[19] J. Russell, “A Circumplex Model of Affect,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 39, No. 6, 1980, pp. 1161-1178.
[20] M. Seligman, “Authentic Happiness,” Random House, Lon- don, 2003.
[21] D. Morris, “The Nature of Happiness,” Little Books, Lon- don, 2004.
[22] A. Furnham and I. Christoforou, “Personality Traits, Emo- tional Intelligence, and Multiple Happiness,” North Ameri- can Journal of Psychology, Vol. 9, No. 3, 2007, pp. 439- 462.
[23] S. L. Churchill, V. L. Plano-Clark, K. Prochaska-Cue, J. W. Creswell and L. Ontai-Grzebik, “How Rural Low-Income Families Have Fun: A Grounded Theory Study,” Journal of Leisure Research, Vol. 39, No. 2, 2007, pp. 271-294.
[24] A. C. Garn and D. J. Cothran, “The Fun Factor in Physical Education,” Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, Vol. 25, No. 3, 2006, pp. 281-297.
[25] S. A. Jackson, “Joy, Fun, and Flow State in Sport,” In: Y. L. Hanin, Ed., Emotions in Sport, Human Kinetics Pub- lishers, Champaign, 2000, pp. 135-155.
[26] J. A. Middleton, J. Littlefield and R. Lehrer, “Gifted Stu- dents’ Conceptions of Academic Fun: An Examination of a Critical Construct for Gifted Education,” Gifted Child Quarterly, Vol. 36, No. 1, 1992, pp. 38-44.
[27] J. A. Middleton, “A Study of Intrinsic Motivation in the Mathematics Classroom: A Personal Constructs Approach,” Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, Vol. 26, No. 3, 1995, pp. 254-279.
[28] D. C. Slaughter, “A Fun Scale and its Possible Applica- tions,” Dissertation Abstracts International, Vol. 44, 1984, pp. 3577-3578.
[29] I. C. McManus, “Measuring the Culture of C. P. Snow’s Two Cultures,” Empirical Studies of the Arts, Vol. 24, No. 2, 2006, pp. 219-227.
[30] I. C. McManus and A. Furnham, “Aesthetic Activities and Aesthetic Attitudes: Influences of Education, Background and Personality on Interest and Involvement in the Arts,” British Journal of Psychology, Vol. 97, No. 4, 2006, pp. 555-587.
[31] A. Furnham and H. Cheng, “Lay Theories of Happiness,” Journal of Happiness Studies, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2000, pp. 227-246.
[32] A. Furnham, H. Cheng and Y. Shirasu, “Lay Theories of Happiness in the East and West,” Psychologia, Vol. 44, No. 2, 2001, pp. 173-187.
[33] J. Pflug, “Folk Theories of Happiness,” Social Indicators Research, Vol. 92, No. 3, 2009, pp. 551-563.
[34] A. Furnham, I. C. McManus and D. Scott, “Personality, Empathy and Attitudes to Animal Welfare,” Anthrozo?s, Vol. 16, No. 2, 2003, pp. 135-146.
[35] A. Furnham and I. C. McManus, “Student Attitudes to University Education,” Higher Education Review, Vol. 36, No. 2, 2004, pp. 29-38.
[36] R. A. Fox, I. C. McManus and B. C. Winder, “The Short- ened Study Process Questionnaire: An Investigation of its Structure and Longitudinal Stability Using Confirmatory Factor Analysis,” British Journal of Educational Psychol- ogy, Vol. 71, No. 4, 2001, pp. 511-530.
[37] C. Mackay, T. Cox, G. Burrows and T. Lazzerini, “An Inventory for the Measurement of Self-Reported Stress and Arousal,” British Journal of Social and Clinical Psy- chology, Vol. 17, No. 3, 1978, pp. 283-284.
[38] G. Matthews, D. M. Jones and A. G. Chamberlain, “Re- fining the Measurement of Mood: The UWIST Mood Ad- jective Checklist,” British Journal of Psychology, Vol. 81, 1990, pp. 17-42.
[39] T. J. Huelsman and R. C. Nemanick, “Scales to Measure Four Dimensions of Dispositional Mood: Positive Energy, Tiredness, Negative Activation, and Relaxation,” Educa- tional and Psychological Measurement, Vol. 58, No. 5, 1998, pp. 804-819.
[40] L. Dubé and J. L. Le Bel, “The Content and Structure of Laypeople’s Concept of Pleasure,” Cognition and Emotion, Vol. 17, No. 2, 2003, pp. 263-295.
[41] Anonymous, “Creating a Culture of Change (Interview with Dr. Jonathan Nicholls),” CAM: The University of Cam- bridge Alumni Magazine, No. 53, 2008, p. 9.
[42] A. Gostick and S. Christopher, “Having Fun at Work is Serious Business,” PsycCRITIQUES, Vol. 53, No. 41, 2008, pp. 1-3.
[43] H. A. Murray, “Explorations in Personality,” Oxford Uni- versity Press, Oxford, 1938.
[44] H. J. Eysenck, “I Do: Your Guide to a Happy Marriage,” Century Publishing, Post Falls, 1983, pp. 1-217.
[45] L. J. Francis, L. B. Brown, D. Lester and R. Philipchalk, “Happiness as Stable Extraversion: A Cross-Cultural Ex- amination of the Reliability and Validity of the Oxford Happiness Inventory among Students in the U.K., U.S.A., Australia, and Canada,” Personality and Individual Dif- ferences, Vol. 24, No. 2, 1998, pp. 167-171.
[46] A Furnham and C. Brewin, “Personality and Happiness,” Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 11, No. 10, 1990, pp. 1093-1096.
[47] M. Zuckerman, “P-Impulsive Sensation Seeking and its Behavioral, Psychophysiological Biochemical Correlates,” Neuropsychobiology, Vol. 28, No. 1-2, 1993, pp. 30-36.
[48] M. Zuckerman, “Behavioral Expressions and Biosocial Bases of Sensation Seeking,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1994.
[49] A. Furnham, “The Protestant Work Ethic,” Routledge Publishing, Cornwall, 1990.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.