Share This Article:

Growth Kinetics of Wildlife E. coli Isolates in Soil and Water

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:2899KB) PP. 838-846
DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.328098    4,214 Downloads   7,082 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Bacteria are the major cause of surface water contamination in the United States. US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) uses the Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) process to regulate the E. coli loads from fecal sources in a watershed. Different point and non-point sources can contribute to the fecal contamination of a waterbody including municipal and on-site wastewater treatment plants, livestock, birds, and wildlife. Unfortunately, wildlife sources in many rural watersheds are poorly characterized. E. coli is also known to persist in waterbodies when no known fecal sources are present. In this study, E. coli from wildlife fecal material was enumerated and the fate of E. coli under different environmental factors was studied. No growth was observed in soil at 4% moisture content and in water at 10℃. The highest E. coli growth was recorded in water at 30℃. It can be seen from these results that there was variation in the fate of E. coli under different environmental conditions. The fate of E. coli in the environment is a complex process and is influenced by many factors and their interactions, making it difficult to predict. The findings from this study along with additional studies can be used to improve the accuracy of model predictions to estimate the E. coli loads in watersheds.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

M. Gallagher, R. Karthikeyan and S. Mukhtar, "Growth Kinetics of Wildlife E. coli Isolates in Soil and Water," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 3 No. 8A, 2012, pp. 838-846. doi: 10.4236/jep.2012.328098.

References

[1] USEPA, “Causes of Impairment for 303(d) Listed Waters,” US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC, 2008, Retrieved 19 March 2012, from US Environmental Protection Agency: http://iaspub.epa.gov/waters10/attains_impaired_waters.impaired_waters_list?p_state=TX&p_cycle=2008
[2] USEPA, “EPA’s 2008 Report on the Environment,” US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington DC, 2008, Retrieved 6 January 2012, from US Environmental Protection Agency: http://www.epa.gov/ncea/roe/docs/roe_final/roe_final_health_chap5_disease.pdf
[3] TCEQ, “Texas 303(d) List (March 2008),” 2008, Retrieved 6 January 2012, from Texas Commission on Environmental Quality: http://www.tceq.texas.gov/assets/public/compliance/monops/water/08twqi/2008_303d.pdf
[4] K. Anderson, J. E. Whitlock and V. J. Harwood, “Persistence and Differential Survival of Fecal Indicator Bacteria in Subtropical Waters and Sediments,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 71, No. 6, 2005, pp. 3041-3048. doi:10.1128/AEM.71.6.3041-3048.2005
[5] M. Byappanahalli, M. Fowler, D. Shively and R. Whitman, “Ubiquity and Persistence of Escherichia coli in a Midwestern Coastal Stream,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 69, No. 8, 2003, pp. 4549-4555. doi:10.1128/AEM.69.8.4549-4555.2003
[6] T. R. Desmarais, H. M. Solo-Gabriele and C. J. Palmer, “Influence of Soil on Fecal Indicator Organisms in a Tidally Influenced Subtropical Environment,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 68, No. 3, 2002, pp. 1165-1172. doi:10.1128/AEM.68.3.1165-1172.2002
[7] S. Ishii, W. B. Ksoll, R. E. Hicks and M. J. Sadowsky, “Presence and Growth of Naturalized Escherichia coli in Temperate Soils from Lake Superior Watersheds,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 72, No. 1, 2006, pp. 612-621. doi:10.1128/AEM.72.1.612-621.2006
[8] H. M. Solo-Gabriele, M. A. Wolfert, T. R. Desmarais and C. J. Palmer, “Sources of Escherichia coli in a Coastal Subtropical Environment,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 66, No. 1, 2000, pp. 230-237. doi:10.1128/AEM.66.1.230-237.2000
[9] Y. J. An, D. H. Kampbell and G. P. Breidenbach, “Escherichia coli and Total Coliforms in Water and Sediments at Lake Marinas,” Environmental Pollution, Vol. 120, No. 3, 2002, pp. 771-778.
[10] E. Franz, A. D. van Diepeningen, O. J. de Vos and A. H. C. van Bruggen, “Effects of Cattle Feeding Regimen and Soil Management Type on the Fate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica Serovartyphimurium in Manure, Manure-Amended Soil, and Lettuce,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 71, No. 10, 2005, pp. 6165-6174. doi:10.1128/AEM.71.10.6165-6174.2005
[11] P. Laliberte and D. J. Grimes, “Survival of Escherichia coli in Lake Bottom Sediment,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 43, No. 3, 1982, pp. 623-628.
[12] B. M. Sherer, J. R. Miner, J. A. Moore and J. C. Buckhouse, “Indicator Bacteria Survival in Stream Sediments,” Journal of Environmental Quality, Vol. 21, No. 4, 1992, pp. 591-595. doi:10.2134/jeq1992.00472425002100040011x
[13] G. R. Stephenson and R. C. Rychert, “Bottom Sediment: A Reservoir of Escherichia coli in Rangeland Streams,” Journal of Range Manage, Vol. 35, No. 1, 1982, pp. 119- 123. doi:10.2307/3898537
[14] D. S. Chandler and J. A. Craven, “Relationship of Soil Moisture to Survival of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium in Soils,” Australian Journal of Agricultural & Resource, Vol. 31, No. 3, 1980, pp. 547-555. doi:10.1071/AR9800547
[15] S. Crane and J. A. Moore, “Bacterial Pollution of Groundwater: A Review,” Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, Vol. 22, No. 1, 1984, pp. 67-83. doi:10.1007/BF00587465
[16] M. Habteselassie, M. Bischoff, E. Blume, B. Applegate, B. Reuhs, S. Brouder and R.F. Turco, “Environmental Controls on the Fate of Escherichia coli in Soil,” Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, Vol. 190, No. 1-4, 2008, pp. 143- 155. doi:10.1007/s11270-007-9587-6
[17] A. F. Carlucci, P. V. Scarpino and D. Pramer, “Evaluation of Factors Affecting Survival of Escherichia coli in Sea Water,” Applied Microbiology, Vol. 9, No. 5, 1961, pp. 400-404.
[18] M. A. Faust, A. E. Aotaky and M. T. Hargadon, “Effect of Parameters on the in Situ Survival of Escherichia coli MC-6 in an Estuarine Environment,” Applied Microbiology, Vol. 30, No. 5, 1975, pp. 800-806.
[19] Z. Filip, D. Kaddu-Mulindwa and G. Milde, “Survival of Some Pathogenic and Facultative Pathogenic Bacteria in Groundwater,” Water Science and Technology, Vol. 20, No. 3, 1988, pp. 227-231.
[20] K. P. Flint, “The Long-Term Survival of Escherichia coli in River Water,” Journal of Applied Bacteriology, Vol. 63, No. 3, 1987, pp. 261-270. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.1987.tb04945.x
[21] C. W. Hendricks, “Enteric Bacterial Growth Rates in River Water,” Applied Microbiology, Vol. 24, No. 2, 1972, pp. 168-174.
[22] R. C. Jamieson, D. M. Joy, H. Lee, R. Kostaschuk and R. J. Gordon, “Resuspension of Sediment-Associated Escherichia coli in a Natural Stream,” Journal of Environmental Quality, Vol. 34, No. 2, 2005, pp. 581-589. doi:10.2134/jeq2005.0581
[23] G. A. McFeters, G. K. Bissonnette, J. J. Jezeski, C. A. Thomson and D. G. Stuart, “Comparative Survival of Indicator Bacteria and Enteric Pathogens in Well Water,” Applied Microbiology, Vol. 27, No. 5, 1974, pp. 823-829.
[24] R. Padia, “Occurrence and Fate of Escherichia coli from Nonpoint Sources in Cedar Creek Watershed, Texas,” Unpublished MS Thesis, Texas A&M University, Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, College Station, Tex, 2010.
[25] I. D. Ogden, D. R. Fenlon, A. Vinten and D. Lewis, “The Fate of Escherichia coli O157 in Soil and Its Potential to Contaminate Drinking Water,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, Vol. 66, No. 1-2, 2001, pp. 111-117. doi:10.1016/S0168-1605(00)00508-0
[26] R. Sjogren, “Prolonged Survival of an Environmental Escherichia coli in Laboratory Soil Microcosms,” Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, Vol. 75, No. 3-4, 1994, pp. 389-403. doi:10.1007/BF00482948
[27] B. Bicknell, J. Imhoff, J. Kittle Jr., A. Donigan and R. Johanson, “Hydrological Simulation Program FORTRAN. User’s Manual for Version 11,” EPA/600/R-97/080, USEPA National Exposure Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, 1997.
[28] Y. A. Pachepsky, A. M. Sadeghi, S. A. Bradford, D. R. Shelton, A. K. Guber and T. Dao, “Transport and Fate of Manure-Borne Pathogens: Modeling Perspective,” Agricultural Water Management, Vol. 86, No. 1-2, 2006, pp. 81-92. doi:10.1016/j.agwat.2006.06.010
[29] A. M. Sadeghi and J. G. Arnold, “A SWAT/Microbial Submodel for Predicting Pathogen Loadings in Surface and Groundwater at Watershed and Basin Scales,” TMDL Environ. Reg, 2002.
[30] A. Teague, R. Karthikeyan, M. Babbar-Sebens, R, Srinivasan and R. A. Persyn, “Spatially Explicit Load Enrichment Calculation Tool to Identify Potential E. coli Sources in Watersheds,” Transactions of ASABE, Vol. 52, No. 4, 2009, pp. 1109-1120.
[31] R. D. Harmel, R. Karthikeyan, T. Gentry and R. Srinivasan, “Effects of Agricultural Management, Land Use, and Watershed Scale on E. coli Concentrations in Runoff and Streamflow,” Transactions of ASABE, Vol. 53, No. 6, 2010, pp. 1833-1841.
[32] B. L. Benham, C. Baffaut, R. W. Zeckoski, K. R. Mankin, Y. A. Pachepsky, A. M. Sadeghi, K. M. Brannan, M. L. Soupir and M. J. Habersack, “Modeling Bacteria Fate and Transport in Watersheds to Support TMDLs,” Transactions of ASABE, Vol. 49, No. 4, 2006, pp. 987-1002.
[33] USEPA, “Method 1603: Escherichia coli (E. coli) in Water by Membrane Filtration Using Modified Membrane-Thermotolerant Escherichia coli agar (Modified m TEC),” Publication EPA-821-R-02-023, USEPA Office of Water, Office of Science and Technology, Washington DC, 2002.
[34] S. Crane and J. A. Moore, “Modeling Enteric Bacterial Die-Off: A REVIEW,” Water, Air, & Soil Pollution, Vol. 27, No. 3-4, 1986, pp. 411-439. doi:10.1007/BF00649422
[35] K. R. Reddy, R. Khaleel and M. R. Overcash, “Behavior and Transport of Microbial Pathogens and Indicator Organisms in Soils Treated with Organic Wastes,” Journal of Environmental Quality, Vol. 10, No. 3, 1981, pp. 255- 266. doi:10.2134/jeq1981.00472425001000030001x
[36] E. D. Berry and D. N. Miller, “Cattle Feedlot Soil Moisture and Manure Content: II. Impact on Escherichia coli O157,” Journal of Environmental Quality, Vol. 34, No. 2, 2005, pp. 656-663. doi:10.2134/jeq2005.0656
[37] D. M. Oliver, P. M. Haygarth, C. D. Clegg and A. L. Heathwaite, “Differential E. coli Die-Off Patterns Associated with Agricultural Matrices,” Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 40, No. 18, 2006, pp. 5710- 5716. doi:10.1021/es0603249
[38] R. L. Tate, “Cultural and Environmental Factors Affecting the Longevity of Escherichia coli in Histols,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 35, No. 5, 1978, pp. 925-929.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.