Share This Article:

Functional design method for improving safety and ergonomics of mechanical products

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:2323KB) PP. 457-468
DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2012.58058    4,828 Downloads   8,709 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

In order to help companies to improve their competetiveness, it is important to develop new design methodologies. In this framework, a Functional And Robust Design (FARD) methodology dedicated to routine design of “highly productive” modular product ranges is proposed including principles of functional analysis, Design For Assembly (DFA), and techniques of modelling and simulation for ergonomics consideration. This paper focuses on the application of this original method applied to mechanical vibration and ergonomics problems of a scraper. Including biomechanical aspect in the design methodology, it is possible to identify the impact of a vibration tool on its users using numerical models of the tool coupled to a finite element model of the human hand. This method can proactively warn very early, in the design process, the risks of causing musculoskeletal disorders and facilitate an optimization of the mechanical tool. This study is a first step in a context of human-centered design.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Robert, A. , Roth, S. , Chamoret, D. , Yan, X. , Peyraut, F. and Gomes, S. (2012) Functional design method for improving safety and ergonomics of mechanical products. Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering, 5, 457-468. doi: 10.4236/jbise.2012.58058.

References

[1] Untaroiu, C.D., Meissner, M.U., Crandall, J.R., Takahashi, Y., Okamoto, M. and Ito, O., 2009. Crash reconstruction of pedestrian accidents using optimization techniques. International Journal of Impact Engineering, 36 (2), 210-219.
[2] Chaffin, D.B., 1988. Biomechanical modelling of the low back during load lifting. Ergonomics, 31 (5), 685-697.
[3] Chaffin, D.B., 2005. Improving digital human modelling for proactive ergonomics in design. Ergonomics, 48 (5), 478-491.
[4] Vezin, P. and Verriest, J.P., 2005. Development of a Set of Numerical Human Models for Safety. 19th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles, Washington DC, United States, 6-9 June.
[5] Buchholz, B. and Armstrong, T.J., 1992. A kinematic model of the human hands to evaluate its prehensile capabilities. Journal of Biomechanics, 25 (2), 149-162.
[6] Buchholz, B., Armstrong, T.J. and Goldstein, S.A., 1992. Anthropometric data for describing the kinematics of the human hand. Ergonomics, 35 (3), 261-273.
[7] Marras, W.S. and Schoenmarxlin, R.W., 1993. Wrist motions in industry. Ergonomics, 36 (4), 341-351.
[8] Robert, A., Yan, X.T., Roth, S., Deschinkel, K. and Gomes, S., 2011. A new approach to modularity in product development – utilising assembly sequence knowledge. 18th International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED11), Copenhagen, Denmark, 15-18 August, 236-248.
[9] Pahl, G., Beitz W., Feldhusen J., Grote K.H., 2007. Engineering Design: A Systematic Approach, third edition. New York: Springer-Verlag.
[10] Chamoret, D., Roth, S., Feng, Z.Q., Yan, X.T., Gomes, S. and Peyraut, F.,2012. A novel approach to modelling and simulating the contact behaviour between a human hand model and a deformable object. Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering. DOI: 10.1080/10255842.2011.608662.
[11] Haugan, G.T., 2002. Effective work breakdown structures – Project Management Essential Library. United States of America: Management concepts.
[12] Ullman, D., 2002. The mechanical design process. 3rd edition. New-York: MacGraw-Hill.
[13] Pugh, S., 1990. Total Design-Integrated Methods for Successful Product Engineering. 1st edition. Wokingham: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
[14] Solehnius, G., 1992. Concurrent engineering. Annals of the CIRP, 41 (2), 645-655.
[15] Brissaud, D. and Tichkiewitch, S., 2001. Product models for Lifecycle. CIRP Annals-Manufacturing Technology, 50 (1), 105-108.
[16] Brissaud, D. and Garro, O., 1996. An Approach to Concurrent Engineering using Distributed Design Methodology. Concurrent Engineering: Research and Applications, 4 (3), 303-311.
[17] Suh, N.P., 2001. Axiomatic Design: Advances and Applications. Oxford University Press, USA.
[18] Andreasen, M.M. and Hein, L., 1987. Integrated product development. London: Springer-Verlag.
[19] Gomes S., Sagot J-C. (2002) ‘A concurrent engineering experience based on a cooperative and object oriented design methodology’, 3rd International Conference on Integrated Design and Manufacturing in Mechanical Engineering, Kluwer Academics Publisher, p. 11-18 Fortin, C. Mascle and J. Pegna, eds. Integrated Design and Manufacturing in Mechanical Engineering. Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 11-18.
[20] Bahrami, A. and Dagli, C.H., 1993. From fuzzy input requirement to crisp design. International journal of Advanced manufacturing Technology, 8 (1), 52-60.
[21] Blaise, J.C., Lhoste, P. and Ciccotelli J., 2003. Formalisation of normative knowledge for safe design. Safety Science, 41 (2-3), 241–261.
[22] Gomes, S., Sagot, J.C., Koukam, A. and Leroy, N., 1999. MANERCOS, a new tool providing ergonomics in a concurrent engineering design life cycle. 4th Annual Scientific Conference on Web Technology, New Media, Communications and Telematics – Theory, Methods, Tools and Applications, EUROMEDIA 99, Munich, Germany, 25-28 April, 237-241.
[23] Le Bouar, G., Gomes, S., Sagot, J.C., 2001. Activity simulation: an aid for high speed craft bridge design process. 4th International Conference an marine Technology ODRA 2001, Szczecin, Poland, May, 161-170.
[24] Fraysse, F., Dumas, R., Cheze, L. and Wang, X., 2009. Comparison of global and joint-to-joint methods for estimating the hip joint load and muscle forces during walking. Journal of Biomechanics, 42 (14), 2357-2362.
[25] Sancho-Bru, J.L., Mora, M.C., Leon, B.E., Pérez-Gonzalez, A,. Iserte, J.L. and Morales, A., 2012 Grasp modelling with a biomechanical model of the hand, Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering [In press] DOI:10.1080/10255842.2012.682156
[26] Javanmardian A., HaghPanahi M., (2010) 3 Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of the Human Wrist Joint without Ligaments under Compressive Loads, Proceeding of the 17th Iranian Conference of Biomedical Engineering (ICBME), p 1-4.
[27] Gislason M.K., Stansfield B., Nash D.H. (2010) Finite element model creation and stability considerations of complex biological articulation : The human wrist joint, Medical Engineering and Physics 32 (5) 523-531
[28] Chou, J.R. and Hsiao, S.W., 2005. An anthropometric measurement for developing an electric scooter. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 35 (11), 1047-1063.
[29] Chamoret, D., Peyraut, F.,Gomes, S. and Feng, Z.Q., 2010. Finite element approach applied to human digital model for biomechanical modelling. International Journal on Interactive Design and Manufacturing, 4 (1), 75-82.
[30] Rho, J.Y., Tsui, T.Y. and Pharr, G.M., 1997. Elastic properties of human cortical and trabecular lamellar bone measured by nanoindentation. Biomaterials, 18 (20), 1325-1330.
[31] Gasser, T.C., Ogden, R.W. and Holzapfel, G.A., 2006. Hyperelastic modelling of arterial layers with distributed collagen fibre orientations. Journal of the Royal Society Interface, 3 (6), 15-35.
[32] AFNOR 1996 Analyse Fonctionnelle – Caractéristiques fondamentales , Standard NF X 50-100.
[33] Robert, A., Deschinkel, K., Roth, S., Yan, X.T. GOMES S., and Gomes, S., 2011b. Approche DFA et conception fonctionnelle de produits modulaires : le modèle FARD. 9e Congrès International de Génie Industriel (CIGI2011), Québec, CANADA 12-14 October, 8p.
[34] Demoly, F., Yan, X.T., Eynard, B., Rivest, L. and Gomes, S., 2011. An Assembly-Oriented Design Framework for Product Structure Engineering and Assembly Sequence Planning. Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing Journal, 27 (1), 33-46.
[35] E.U. Directive and G. PROVISIONS, 2002. Directive 2002/44/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 25 June 2002 on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of workers to the risks arising from physical agents (vibration) (sixteenth individual Directive within the meaning of Article 16 (1) of Directive 89/391/EEC). Official Journal of the European Communities, L, 117, 6-7.
[36] Griffin, M.J., Howarth, H.V.C., Pitts, P.M., Fischer, S., Kaulbars, U., Donati, P.M. and Bereton, P.F., 2006. HAV Good practice Guide V7.7 English 260506-Non-binding guide to good practice with a view to implementation of Directive 2002/44/EC on the minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of workers to the risks arising from physical agents (vibrations) [online]. Institute of Sound and Vibration Research, University of Southampton. Available from: http://www.isvr.soton.ac.uk/hrv/VIBG
[37] Thalmann, N.M. and Thalmann, D., 1995. Finite elements in task-level animation. Finite Elements in Analysisand Design, 19 (4), 227-242.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.