Share This Article:

The Use of Organic Waste as an Eco-Efficient Energy Source in Ghana

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:873KB) PP. 553-562
DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.37066    5,709 Downloads   9,976 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

The problem of municipal solid waste (MSW) management has been an issue of global concern in recent times and has engaged governments and local authorities in their quest to manage solid waste in a sustained manner. One proposition which has the potential of solving three problems at the same time is the use of the biodegradable component of MSW as a source of energy to augment energy supply. This research therefore assessed the use of the organic fraction of MSW as an eco-efficient energy source in Ghana. A study of Ghana’s solid waste profile was undertaken and the fraction of biodegradable component was found to be approximately 60%, with a heating value of 17 MJ/kg and a moisture content of 50%. Moreover, it was established that 0.5 kg of solid waste is generated daily by each Ghanaian, meaning that about 5610 tons of the organic fraction could be made available every day to generate energy to the national grid. It was also established that waste disposal in Ghana is largely by way of open dumping as primary collection of waste from households in Ghana is limited to high-income communities which represent only 11% of the population, whereas secondary collection from transfer points to the disposal facilities is inefficient. With representative power output of 1.66 MWh/tonne a total of 3320 GWh of energy can be produced annually from the 4 proposed plants, generating net revenue of about $111,600,000. As an optimizing step, a waste incineration scheme was suggested in which the off-gases produced from organic waste combustion could be used to produce electrical power with steam in a multi-stage heat exchanger-steam turbine configuration, and the off gases again used for pre-drying of the organic waste in a cycle. A state-of-the art waste incineration technology was used as a model and adapted to suit Ghana’s tropical conditions. MSW combustion releases less CO2 for the same power output (837 Ib/MWh) than any of the other conventional fuels do, and is therefore a good fuel for the fight against climate change.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

R. Ohene Adu and R. Lohmueller, "The Use of Organic Waste as an Eco-Efficient Energy Source in Ghana," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 3 No. 7, 2012, pp. 553-562. doi: 10.4236/jep.2012.37066.

References

[1] N. J. Themelis, “Overview of Waste-to Energy Technology,” Columbia University, New York, 2003.
[2] H. Kleis, et al., “100 Years of Waste Incineration in Denmark,” 2004.
[3] Danish Ministry of Energy, “Danish Energy Statistics,” 2005.
[4] G. H. Williams, P. J. Massey, P. Shepherd and A. Cole, “Incineration of Waste II—Module 54,” De Montfort University, Leicester, 1995.
[5] World Info Zone, “Ghana Information—Page 1,” 2008. www.worldinfozone.com/country.php?country=Ghana
[6] A. Mensah and E. Larbi, “Solid Waste Disposal in Ghana,” 2005. www.lboro.ac.uk/well/resources/fact-sheets/fact-sheets-htm/RSA%20Solid%20waste.htm
[7] L., Demedeme, “Every Ghanaian Generates Half Kilogram of Solid Waste Daily—Sanitation Expert,” 2008. www.ghananewstoday.com
[8] European Environment Agency, “Municipal Waste Generation Per Capita,” 2007. www.eea.europa.eu/
[9] J. N. Fobil, D. Carboo and N. A. Armah, “Evaluation of Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW) for Utilisation in Energy Production in Developing Countries,” International Journal of Environmental Technology and Management, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2005, pp. 76-86. doi:10.1504/IJETM.2005.006508
[10] The World Bank, “Municipal Solid Waste Incineration,” World Bank Technical Guidance Report, 1999.
[11] N. J. Themelis, “An Overview of the Global Waste-to -Energy Industry,” 2003. www.iswa.org
[12] Franklin Associates, “The Role of Recycling in Integrated Waste Management in the United States,” 1995.
[13] E. Berenyi, “Methane Recovery from Landfill Yearbook,” 5th Edition, Governmental Advisory Associates, Westport, 1999.
[14] C. Kemfert and W.-P. Schill, “An Analysis of Methane Mitigation as a Response to Climate Change,” 2012. http://fixtheclimate.com/uploads/tx_templavoila/AP_Methane_Kemfert_Schill_v.5.0.pdf
[15] J. K. O’Brien, “Comparison of Air Emissions from Waste-to-Energy Facilities to Fossil Fuel Power Plants,” 2005
[16] U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, “An Inventory of Sources and Environmental Releases of Dioxin-Like Compounds in the U.S. for the Years 1987, 1995, and 2000,” 2006.
[17] The German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, “EU-wide Consumer Protection Against Environmental Contaminants in Food—Dioxins and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs),” 2012. http://www.bmu.de/english/food_safety/consumer_protection_eu/doc/41969.php
[18] Delaware Solid Waste Authority, “Waste to Energy Program 4,” 1994. www.dswa.com/programs_wastetoenergy4.asp
[19] T. Miyazaki, Y. T. Kang, A. Akisawa and T. Kashiwagi, “A Combined Power Cycle Using Refuse Incineration and LNG Cold Energy,” Energy, Vol. 25, No. 7, 2000, pp. 639-655. doi:10.1016/S0360-5442(00)00002-5
[20] W. R. Livingstone, “Technical and Economic Assessment of Energy Conversion Technologies for MSW,” 2002. www.michiganrecycles.org/pdf/British_Conversion_Tech_Report.pdf

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.