Share This Article:

Alkaloids, Limonoids and Phenols from Meliaceae Species Decrease Survival and Performance of Hypsipyla Grandella Larvae

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:357KB) PP. 988-994
DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.37117    3,991 Downloads   7,803 Views   Citations


Meliaceae plants are distinguished by the attack of the shootborer Hypsipyla grandella and also for the occurrence of limonoids, alkaloids and phenolic compounds. Such compounds extracted from leaves of Meliaceae species Cedrela odorata L., Swietenia macrophylla King, Khaya senegalensis, Toona ciliata, and C. odorata grafted onto T. ciliata plants, were tested on C. odorata leaf disks to determine their effects on survival and performance of H. grandella larvae. Larval survival was assessed 2, 10 and 25 days after starting the bioassays. Leaf consumption and weight gain per larva, days to pupa and to adult stages, pupal weight and length, and moth wing appearance were assessed for larval performance. The three compunds from the four Meliaceae species and the grafted combination affected (P ≤ 0.02) larval leaf consumption, weight gain, time to pupa and to adult stages, wing development and larval survival of H. grandella. Pupa weight (P = 0.78, F = 0.72, d.f. = 18, 160) and length (P = 0.48, F = 0.98, d.f. = 18, 160) were similar regardless of the coumpound used. Limonoid reduced larval survival on the three dates of evaluation. Alkaloids decreased leaf consumption, weight gain of larvae and time needed to reach pupa and adult stages. Alkaloids from T. ciliata and phenols from C. odorata were the best coumpounds to reduce leaf consumption and weight gain. Alkaloids from the grafted plants caused 20% of H. grandella adults to form abnormal wings.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

J. Pérez-Flores, S. Eigenbrode and L. Hilje-Quiroz, "Alkaloids, Limonoids and Phenols from Meliaceae Species Decrease Survival and Performance of Hypsipyla Grandella Larvae," American Journal of Plant Sciences, Vol. 3 No. 7, 2012, pp. 988-994. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2012.37117.


[1] A. C. Newton, P. Baker, S. Ramnarine, J. F. Mesén and R. R. B. Leakey, “The Mahogany Shoot Borer: Prospects for Control,” Forest Ecology Management, Vol. 57, 1993, pp. 301-328.
[2] P. D. Albert, A. A. López, T. M. Rodríguez and R. M. Duarte, “Recursos Fitogenéticos Forestales, I. Familia Meliaceae,” Fontqueria, Vol. 42, 1995, pp. 329-351.
[3] P. Grijpma, “Studies on the Shoot-borer Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae). V. Observation on Rearing Technique and on Host Selection Behavior of Adults in Captivity,” Turrialba, Vol. 21, 1971, pp. 202-213.
[4] S. A. Cunningham and R. B. Floyd, “Leaf Compositional Differences Predict Variation in Hypsipyla robusta Damage to Toona ciliata in Field Trials,” Canadian Journal of Forest Research, Vol. 34, 2004, pp. 642-648.
[5] M. F. Da Silva, das G. Fatima, S. M. M. Agostinho, J. R. De Paula, J. O. Neto, I. Castro-Gamboa, R. E. Filho, J. B. Fernandes and P. C. Vieira, “Chemistry of Toona ciliata and Cedrela odorata Graft (Meliaceae): Chemosystematic and Ecological Significance,” Pure and Applied Chemistry, Vol. 71, 1999, pp. 1083-1087.
[6] J. R. De Paula, I. J. C. Vieira, M. F. Das G. F. Da Silva, F. E. Rodriguez, J. B. Fernandes, P. C. Vieira, A. L. Pinheiro and E. F. Vilela, “Sesquiterpenes, Triterpenoids, Limonoids and Flavonoids of C. odorata Graft and Speculations on the Induced Resistance Against Hypsipyla grandella,” Phytochemistry, Vol. 44, 1997, pp.1449-1454.
[7] P. Grijpma, “Resistance of Meliaceae Against the Shoot Borer Hypsipyla grandella with Particular Reference to Toona ciliata M.J. Roem. var. australis (F. & M.) C.D.C.,” In: J. Burley and B. T. Styles, Eds., Tropical Trees: Variation, Breeding and Conservation, Academic Press, London, England, 1976, pp: 69-78.
[8] A. C. Newton, A. D. Watt, F. López, J. F. Cornelius, J. F. Mesén and E. A. Corea, “Genetic Variation in Host Susceptibility to Attack by the Mahogany Shoot Borer, Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller),” Agricultural and Forest Entomology, Vol. 1, 1999, pp.11-18.
[9] D. H. A. Taylor, “Chemotaxonomy: the Occurrence of Limonoids in the Meliaceae,” In: T. D. Pennington, Ed., Flora Neotropica, The New York Botanical Garden, 1981, pp. 450-458.
[10] D. E. Champagne, O. Koul, M. B. Isman, G. G. E. Scuder, and G. H. N. Towers, “Biological Activity of Limonoids from the Rutales,” Phytochemistry, Vol. 31, 1992, pp. 377-394.
[11] R. C. Saxena, “Insecticides from Neem,” In: J. T. Arnason, B. J. R. Philogéne, and P. Morand, Eds., Insecticides of plant origin, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1989, pp. 110-135.
[12] F. Mancebo, L. Hilje, G. A. Mora and R. Salazar, “Biological Activity of Two Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss., Meliaceae) Products on Hypsipyla grandella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Larvae,” Crop Protection, Vol. 21, 2002, pp. 107-112.
[13] R. Chowdhury, “5-Methylcoumarins from Toona ciliata Stem Bark and Their Chemotaxonomic Significance,” Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, Vol. 32, 2004, pp. 103-105.
[14] A. T. Chatterjee, T. Chakra-borthy and S. Chandrasekharan, “Chemical Investigation of Cedrela toona,” Phytochemistry, Vol. 10, 1971, pp. 2533-2535.
[15] L. M. Schoonhoven, “Secondary Plant Substances and Insects,” Recent Advances in Phytochemistry, Vol. 4, 1972, pp. 197-242.
[16] L. H. Caporale, “Chemical ecology: a view from the pharmaceutical industry,” Proceedindgs of the National Academy of Sciences USA, Vol. 92, 1995, pp. 75-82.
[17] S. Smo-lenski, H. Silinis and M. Farnworth, “Alkaloid Screening IV,” Lloydia, Vol. 37, 1974, pp. 30-61.
[18] P. Grijpma and S. C. Roberts, “Biological and Chemical Screening for the Basis of Resistance of Toona ciliata M.J. Roem. var. australis (F. & M.) C.D.C.,” Turrialba, Vol. 25, 1975, pp. 152-159.
[19] J. G. Millar and J. J. Sims, “Preparation, Cleanup, and Preliminary Fractionation of Extracts,” In: J. G. Millar and K. F. Haynes, Eds., Methods in Chemical Ecology. Chemical Methods. Vol. 1. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, MA., 1998, pp. 1-31.
[20] C. L. Céspedes, J. S. Calderón, L. Lina and E. Aranda, “Growth Inhibitory Effects on Fall Armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda of Some Limonoids Isolated from Cedrela spp. (Meliaceae),” Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 48, 2000, pp. 1903-1908.
[21] C. Vargas, P. J. Shannon, R. Taveras, F. Soto and L. Hilje, “Un Nuevo Método Para la Cría Masiva de Hypsipyla grandella,” Hoja Técnica No. 39. Manejo Integrado de Plagas (Costa Rica), 2001, Vol. 62, pp. I-IV.
[22] D. Sliwa and V. O. Becker, “Studies on the Shootborer Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) (Lep., Pyralidae). XXI. Observations on Emergence and Mating of Adults in Captivity,” Turrialba, Vol. 23, 1973, pp. 351-356.
[23] SAS Institute, SAS User′s Guide: Statistical Analysis System, version 8.2. SAS Institute Inc. Cary, NC, USA, 2001.
[24] R. Pavela, N. Vrchová and B. será, “Growth Inhibitory Effect of Extracts from Reynoutria sp. Plants Against Spodoptera littoralis Larvae,” Agrociencia, Vol. 42, No. 5, 2008, pp. 573-584.
[25] J. Pérez, S. Eigenbrode, L. Hilje, R. Tripepi, M. E. Aguilar and F. Mesén, “Leaves from Grafted Meliaceae Species Affect Survival and Performance of Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) Larvae,” Journal of Pest Sciences, Vol. 83, 2010, pp. 95-104.
[26] W. T. Warthen, “Insect Feeding Deterrents (1976-1980),” In: E. Morgan and N. Mandava, Eds. CRC Hanbook of Natural Pesticides, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 23-24.
[27] R. Taveras, L. Hilje and M. Carballo, “Development of Hypsipyla grandella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Response to Constant Temperatures,” Neotropical Entomology, Vol. 33, 2004, pp. 1-6.
[28] H. Rembole and K. P. Suber, “Inhibition of Oogenesis and Ovarian Ecdysteroid Synthesis by Azadirachtin in Locusta migratoria,” Zeitschrift für Naturforschung, Vol. 36, 1981, pp. 466-469.
[29] X. D. Luo, S. H. Wu, Y. B. Ma and D. G. Wu, “Studies on Chemical Constituents of Toona sinensis,” Chinese Traditional and Herbal Drugs, Vol. 32, 2001, pp. 390-391.
[30] K. J. Wang, Ch. R. Yang and Y. Zhang, “Phenolic Antioxidants from Chinese Toon (Fresh Young Leaves and Shoots of Toona sinensis),” Food Chemistry, Vol. 101, 2007, pp. 365-371.
[31] L. Hilje y J. Cornelius, “Es Inmanejable Hypsipyla grandella Como Plaga Forestal Hoja Técnica No. 38, Manejo Integrado de Plagas (Costa Rica), Vol. 61, 2001, pp. I-IV.
[32] D. Cibrián, J. T. Méndez, R. Campos, H. O. Yates III and J. E. Flores, “Insectos Forestales de México”, Universidad Autónoma Chapingo-Comisión Forestal de América del Norte (COFAN). Publ. No. 6, 1995, 453 p.

comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.