Share This Article:

Use of Prosopis laevigata Seed Gum and Opuntia ficus-indica Mucilage for the Treatment of Municipal Wastewaters by Coagulation-Flocculation

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:285KB) PP. 35-41
DOI: 10.4236/nr.2012.32006    6,519 Downloads   11,052 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Prosopis laevigata and Opuntia ficus-indica grow in arid and semiarid regions of Mexico and other countries. Both produce biopolymers with interesting characteristics from the rheological point of view as well as because of their coagulating-flocculating capabilities. Prosopis produce galactomannans inside the endosperm, very similar to those found in guar, locust bean, and tara gums. Opuntia sp. produces mucilage that contains polygalacturonic acid and five neutral sugars. Prosopis seed gum has not been proposed to be used as coagulant-flocculant before. In the case of Opuntia mucilage, some authors have suggested its use in the treatment of waters, using either the mucilage or the whole cladode powder. The use of these products in the treatment of municipal or even industrial wastewaters could give rise to diverse benefits. From the environmental point of view, treated waters with neither Fe nor Al, nor synthetic polymers would be obtained (with less toxicity risk). Besides, the produced sludges would be smaller in amount, with better biodegradability, and lower metals content. From the economical point of view, the use of these biopolymers would give an added value to the Opuntia and Prosopis culture in Mexico, helping small communities to enhance their incomes by producing environmental-friendly products. This work shows that both Prosopis galactomannan and Opuntia mucilage can be used to treat municipal wastewaters with an initial organic charge of about 827 mg/L as COD by the coagulation-flocculation process, with COD removals for the mesquite seed gum of up to 90% (pH 10, dose of 75 mg/L) and of 60% (pH 7, doses of 50 and 150 mg/L). In the case of mucilage, 65% of the initial COD was removed at pH 10 (dose of 50 mg/L). These figures are very promising for the treatment of wastewaters, with environmental-friendly products.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

L. Torres and S. Carpinteyro-Urban, "Use of Prosopis laevigata Seed Gum and Opuntia ficus-indica Mucilage for the Treatment of Municipal Wastewaters by Coagulation-Flocculation," Natural Resources, Vol. 3 No. 2, 2012, pp. 35-41. doi: 10.4236/nr.2012.32006.

References

[1] SIRE, 2010. http://sire.uca.es/sire/idex.do.html
[2] V. Mathur and N. K. Mathur, “Fenugreek and Other Lesser Known Legume Galactomannan-Polysaccharides: Scope for Developments,” Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, Vol. 64, No. 7, 2005, pp. 475-481.
[3] E. G. Azero and C. T. Andrade, “Characterization of Prosopis juliflora Seed Gum and Effect of Its Addition to -Carrageenan Systems,” Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, Vol. 17, No. 5, 2006, pp. 844-850. doi:10.1590/S0103-50532006000500005
[4] L. Chai-rez-Martínez, J. A. Salazar-Motoya and E. G. Ramos-Ramírez, “Physicochemical and Functional Characterization of the Galactomanan Obtained from Mesquite Seeds (Prosopis palida),” European Food Research Technology, Vol. 227, No. 6, 2008, pp. 1669-1676. doi:10.1007/s00217-008-0892-0
[5] C.-Y. Yin, “Emerging Usage of Plant-Based Coagulants for Water and Wastewater Treatment,” Process Biochemistry, Vol. 45, No. 9, 2010, pp. 1437-1444. doi:10.1016/j.procbio.2010.05.030
[6] M. A. Cerqueira, A. C. Pinheiro, B. W. S. Souza, A. M. P. Lima, C. Ribeiro, C. Miranda, J. A. Teixeira, R. A. Moreira, M. A. Coimbra, M. P. Goncalves and A. A. Vicente, “Extraction, Purification and Characterization of Galactomannans from Non-Traditioal Sources,” Carbohydrate Polymers, Vol. 75, No. 3, 2009, pp. 408-414. doi:10.1016/j.carbpol.2008.07.036
[7] PROSEA, Internet Resources, 2010. http://www.prosea.lipi.go.id/html
[8] “Agro Forestry Tree Database,” 2010. http://www.worlagroforestrycentry.org/sea/Products/AFDbases/af/index.asp
[9] D. McGarvie and H. Parolis, “The Mucilage of Opuntia ficusindica,” Carbohydrate Research, Vol. 69, No. 1, 1979, pp. 171-179. doi:10.1016/S0008-6215(00)85762-6
[10] C. Saenz, E. Sepulveda and B. Matsuhiro, “Opuntia spp. Mucilage’s: A Functional Component with Industrial Perspectives,” Journal of the Arid Environments, Vol. 57, No. 3, 2004, pp. 275-290. doi:10.1016/S0140-1963(03)00106-X
[11] E. Sepúlveda, C. Saez, E. Aliaga and C. Aceituno, “Extraction and Characterization of Mucilage in Opuntia spp.,” Journal of Arid Environments, Vol. 68, No. 4, 2007, pp. 534-545. doi:10.1016/j.jaridenv.2006.08.001
[12] F. M. Goycoolea and A. Cardenas, “Pectins from Opuntia spp.: A Short Review,” Journal of the Professional Association for Cactus Development, Vol. 2, 2003, pp. 152-159.
[13] J. D. Zhang, F. Zhang, Y. H. Luo and H. Yang, “A Preliminaty Study on Cactus as Coagulant in Water Treatment,” Process Biochemistry, Vol. 41, No. 3, 2006, pp. 730-733. doi:10.1016/j.procbio.2005.08.016
[14] P. Miretzly, C. Mu?oz and A. Carrillo-Chavez, “Experimental Binding of Lead to a Low Cost on Biosorbent: Nopal (Opuntia streptacantha),” Bioresource Technology, Vol. 99, No. 5, 2008, pp. 1211-1217. doi:10.1016/j.biortech.2007.02.045
[15] S. M. Miller, E. J. Furgate, V. O. Craver, J. A. Smith and J. B. Zimmerman, “Towards Understanding the Efficacy and Mechanism of Opuntia spp. as a Natural Coagulant for Potential Application in Water Treatment,” Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 42, No. 12, 2008, pp. 4274-4279. doi:10.1021/es7025054
[16] E. R. Bandala, F. J. Camargo and L. G. Torres, “Application of Natural Surfactants in the Treatment of Wastewaters Generated in the Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soil- Washing,” Journal of Enviromental Science and Health: Part A, 2012.
[17] S. Carpinteyro-Urban, J. Yá?ez and L. G. Torres, “Coagulation-Flocculation of Wastewaters Employing Guar, Locust Bean and Mesquige Gums, as well as Opuntia Mucilage,” Proceedings of the 2nd IWA Mexico Young Water Professional Conference, Queretaro, Mexico, 12-14 April 2010.
[18] P. M. Nacheva, L. T. Bustillos, E. R. Camperos, S. L. Armenta and L. C. Vigueros, “Characterization and Coagulation-Flocculation Treatability of Mexico City Waste- water Applying Ferric Chloride and Polymers,” Water Science and Technology, Vol. 34, No. 3-4, 1996, pp. 235-247. doi:10.1016/0273-1223(96)00579-3
[19] APHA, AWWA, WPFC, “Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater,” 18th Edition, American Public Health Association, Washington DC, 1995.
[20] L. K. Wang, Y.-T. Hung and N. K. Shammas, “Physicochemical Treatmet Processes,” Humana Press, New York City, 2005. doi:10.1385/159259820x

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.