Share This Article:

Benefits and Costs of the Informal Sector: The Case of Brick Kilns in Bangladesh

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:205KB) PP. 476-484
DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.36058    7,940 Downloads   14,458 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

In developing countries, the informal sector—brick kilns, leather tanning, food processing factories—is often highly polluting, causing countless deaths and illnesses. This paper presents the case of brick kilns in Dhaka, one of the most polluted cities in Asia. Five months per year, brick kilns are the city’s main source of fine particulate pollution, accounting for 38 percent of total fine particulate mass. The paper values the impacts of existing and alternative brick kiln technologies in Dhaka city. Through a Cost-Benefit Analysis, it estimates the net returns for the entrepreneur, and the social costs, such as health impacts from air pollution and damages due to carbon emissions from kilns. It shows that cleaner technologies are more attractive than traditional technologies both from the private and social perspective, and provides concrete recommendations for a cleaner brick sector in Bangladesh.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

L. Croitoru and M. Sarraf, "Benefits and Costs of the Informal Sector: The Case of Brick Kilns in Bangladesh," Journal of Environmental Protection, Vol. 3 No. 6, 2012, pp. 476-484. doi: 10.4236/jep.2012.36058.

References

[1] International Labor Organization and World Trade Organization, “Globalization and Informal Jobs in Developing Countries,” International Labor Organization and World Trade Organization, Geneva, 2009.
[2] Giri National Labor Institute, “Employment and Earnings in Urban Informal Sector—A Study on Arunachal Pradesh,” National Labor Institute Series, No. 076/2007, 2007.
[3] A. Blackman, S. Newbold, J. Shih and J. Cook, “The Benefits and Costs of Informal Sector Pollution Control: Mexican Brick Kilns,” Discussion Paper 00-46, 2000. http://www.rff.org
[4] Ministry of Industries, “National Industrial Policy,” Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, 2010.
[5] Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, “Small Study on Air Quality Impacts of the North Dhaka Brickfield Cluster by Modeling of Emissions and Suggestions for Mitigation Measures Including Financing Models,” Chemical Engineering Department, Dhaka, 2007.
[6] World Bank, “Introducing Energy-Efficient Clean Technologies in the Brick Sector of Bangladesh,” Report No. 60155-BD, Environment, Climate Change and Water Resource Unit, World Bank, Washington DC, 2010.
[7] B. A. Begum, S. K. Biswas and P. K. Hopke, “Key Issues in Controlling Air Pollutants in Dhaka,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 45, No. 40, 2010, pp. 7705-7713.
[8] B. R. Gurjar, T. M. Butler, M. G. Lawrence and J. Lelieveld, “Evaluation of Emissions and Air Quality in Megacities,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 42, No. 7, 2008, pp. 1593-1606.
[9] The Norwegian Institute for Air Research, “Bangladesh Air Pollution Management Project,” http://bapman.nilu.no/
[10] Development Alternatives-Practical Action, “Brick Kilns Emission Management. Cleaner Technologies and Practices for Bangladesh Brick Sector,” PHRD-Funded Initiative Submitted to CASE project, Final Report, 2009.
[11] U. Heirli, and S. Maithel, “Brick by Brick: The Herculean Task of Cleaning up the Asian Brick Industry,” Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation, 2008.
[12] World Bank, “Improving Kiln Efficiency in the Brick Making Industry in Bangladesh,” Project Design Document Form, CDM-SSC-PDD, Version 04/03/11, World Bank, Washington DC, 2011.
[13] World Health Organization, Disability Adjusted Life Years. http://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/metrics_daly/en/
[14] W. Kirsch, “Encyclopedia of Public Health,” Springer, New York, 2008.
[15] P.-O. Johansson, “On the Definition and Estimation of the Value of a Statistical Life,” Working Paper No. 2006-23, Milan European Economy Workshops, 2006.
[16] A. Khan, “Energy and Stack Emission Monitoring in Hybrid Hoffmann Kiln (HHK),” World Bank, Internal Report, Washington DC.
[17] S. Guttinkunda, “Impact Analysis of Brick Kilns on the Air Quality in Dhaka, Bangladesh,” SIM-Air Working Paper Series, 2009. http://www.sim.org
[18] J. Meaud, “Eco-Design and Manufacturing Term Project: Optimization of Air Pollution,” Final Report, University of Michigan, 2005.
[19] J. G. Watson, T. Zhu, J. C. Chow, J. Engelbrecht, E. M. Fujita, W. E. Wilson, “Receptor Modeling Application Framework Forparticle Source Apportionment,” Chemosphere, Vol. 49, No. 9, 2002, pp. 1093-1136. doi:10.1016/S0045-6535(02)00243-6
[20] J. Cohen, H. R. Anderson, B. Ostro, K. Pandley, M. Krzyzanowski, N. Kunzli, K. Gutscmidt, C. A. Pope III, I. Romieu, J. M. Samet and K. Smith, “Urban Air Pollution,” In: M. Ezzati, M. A. D. Rodgers, A. D. Lopez and C. J. L. Murray, Eds., Comparative Quantification of Health Risks: Global and Regional Burden of Disease Due to Selected Major Risk Factors, Vol. 2, World Health Organization, Geneva, 2004.
[21] Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics, “Statistical Pocketbook of Bangladesh,” Planning Division, Ministry of Planning, 2009.
[22] B., Larsen, “Cost of Environmental Damage in Colombia: A Socio-Economic Study and Environmental Health Risk Assessment,” Background Paper for Country Environmental Analysis, World Bank, Washington DC, 2004.
[23] K. Lvovsky, G. Hughes, D. Maddison, B. Ostro and D. W. Pearce, “Environmental Costs of Fossil Fuels: A Rapid Assessment Method with Application to Six Cities,” Environment Department Paper No. 78, World Bank, Washington DC, 2000.
[24] United States Environmental Protection Agency. http://yosemite.epa.gov/ee/epa/eed.nsf/pages/MortalityRiskValuation.html#currentvsl
[25] E. Baum, “Black Carbon from Brick Kilns,” Presentation for CleanAir Task Force, 2010.
[26] Ministry of Environment and Forests, “Comprehensive Industry Document with Emission Standards, Guidelines and Stack Height Regulation for Vertical Shaft Brick Kilns (VSBK) Vis-à-Vis Pollution Control Measures,” COINDS/71/2007, Central Pollution Control Board, Ministry of Environment and Forests, New Delhi, 2007.
[27] C. A. Pope, R. T. Burnett, M. J. Thun, E. E. Calle, D. Krewski, K. Ito and G. Thurston, “Lung Cancer, Cardiopulmonary Mortality, and Long-Term Exposure to Fine Particulate Air Pollution,” Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 287, No. 9, 2002, pp. 1132-1141. doi:10.1001/jama.287.9.1132
[28] S. Guttikunda, “Estimating Health Impacts of Urban Air Pollution,” 2008. http://www.sim-air.org
[29] C. A. Pope and D. W. Dockery, “Health Effects of Fine Particulate Air Pollution: Lines That Connect,” Journal of the Air Waste Management Association, Vol. 56, No. 6, 2006, pp. 709-742. doi:10.1080/10473289.2006.10464485
[30] Health Effects Institute, “Health Effects of Outdoor Air Pollution in Developing Countries of Asia: A Literature Review,” Health Effects Institute, Boston, 2004.
[31] Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, “Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories,” Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, 2006.
[32] L. Croitoru and M. Sarraf, “The Cost of Environmental Degradation. Case Studies from Middle East and North Africa,” Directions in Development, World Bank, 2010.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.