Share This Article:

Effects of Exposure to Electromagnetic Field on of Some Hematological Parameters in Mice

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:1001KB) PP. 30-42
DOI: 10.4236/ojmc.2012.22005    5,397 Downloads   11,501 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of electromagnetic fields on some hematological parameters of Male white mice. Methods: In this study two experiments were used as short-term and long-term experiments. Short-term experiments were carried out in 80 male white Balb/c mice exposed to two types of mobile phone for a period time up to 60 min a day for 2 weeks. Long-term experiments was carried out in 30 male white Balb/c mice exposed to two types of mobile phone for a period time up to 90 min a day for a day for a month, two months, three months. Result: The present result found that a decline in hemoglobin, hematocrit, red blood cells count, in addition to the platelets count after short and long exposure to both types of mobile phone (Alcatel, Nokia,). It was observed that the average number of white cells and lymphocytes increased significantly, indicating the increase to the body’s immune response to radiation. Also, when exposed to both devices (Alcatel, Nokia) for 15 minutes, the red blood cells began to take roles formation due to an increase in the viscosity of the blood and the ability of the cells adhesion. Increased duration of exposure to 30-minute to both devices revealed disparities in the sizes of red blood cells with the appearance of a large proportion of cells with pale colors due to lack of hemoglobin. In the group exposed for 45 minutes showed clearly the influence of mobile phones on examining blood smears which observed a proportion variation in the cell sizes with the emergence of forms of abnormal forms, including pellets cleft with many areas empty of red blood cells, With increasing in of exposure duration to 60 minutes, red blood cells appeared completely different from the natural form and took the forms resembling the eye and tear that appear in the case of anemia. After three months of exposure to both types of mobile phone showed pathological changes in red blood cells where gripped the outer membrane of the red corpuscle changes and become serrated. Conclusion: Exposure to electromagnetic fields is responsible for the variations of some hematological parameters in rats.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

M. Alghamdi and N. El-Ghazaly, "Effects of Exposure to Electromagnetic Field on of Some Hematological Parameters in Mice," Open Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, Vol. 2 No. 2, 2012, pp. 30-42. doi: 10.4236/ojmc.2012.22005.

References

[1] K. Rekecho, “Electricity and Environmental Pollution, the Effect of Electromagnetic Fields on Health,” AL-Zad Company, Jeddah, 1999.
[2] M. E. Al-Rajhi, “Valuation of the Risks of Very Low Frequency and Non-Ionizing Electromagnetic Radiation Emitted by Electric Current of 50/60 Hz, Its Biological Effect, and Organization of Legislating Exposure Limites,” Riyadh College of Technology, Riyadh, 2006.
[3] Y. Djeridane, Y. Touitou and R. de Seze, “Influence of Electromagnetic Fields Emitted by GSM-900 Cellular Telephones on the Circadian Patterns of Gonadal, Adrenal and Pituitary Hormones in Men,” Radiation Research, Vol. 169, No. 3, 2008, pp. 337-343. doi:10.1667/RR0922.1
[4] V. K. Sud and G. S. Sekhon, “Blood Flow through the Human Arterial System in the Presence of a Steady Magnetic Field,” Physics in Medicine and Biology, Vol. 34, No. 7, 1989, p. 795. doi:10.1088/0031-9155/34/7/001
[5] A. Bortkiewicz, “A Study on the Biological Effects of Exposure Mobile-Phone Frequency EMF,” Medical Profession, Vol. 52, No. 2, 2001, pp. 101-106.
[6] S. A. Al Sattar, “Mobile Phones and Electromagnetic Pollution,” Journal of Environmental Studies, Vol. 2, 2005, pp. 22-27.
[7] S. Braune, C. Wrocklage, J. Raczek, T. Gailus and C. Ludking, “Resting Blood Pressure in Chease during Exposures to a Radio—Frequency Electromagnetic Field,” Lancet, Vol. 351, No. 9119, 1998, pp. 1857-1858. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(98)24025-6
[8] K. Scheffecter, H. Lu, K. Norman, N. Van Nood, F. Munoz and A. Beaudet, “Spontaneous Skin Ulceration and Defective T Cell Function in Cd 18 Null Mice,” The Journal of Experimental Medicine, Vol. 188, No. 1, 2007, pp. 119-131.
[9] M. Karel, M. Jan and T. Hand, “Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Waves and Their Mechanism,” 1971. http://www.totalitaer.de/Waffen/englelectmagfieldlife.htm
[10] W. R. Adey, “Brain Tumor Incidence in Rats Chronically Exposed Digital Cellular Telephone Fields in an Initiation—Promotion Model,” 18th Annual Bioelectromagnetics Society Meeting, Victoria, 9-14 June 1996, p. 18.
[11] G. J. Hyland, “Physics and Biology of Mobile Telephony,” Lancet, Vol. 356, No. 9244, 2000, pp. 1833-1836. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)03243-8
[12] P. Michelozzi, A. Capon, U. Kirchmayer, et al., “Adult and Childhood Leukemia near a High—Power Radio Station in Rome, Italy,” American Journal of Epidemidoly, Vol. 155, No. 12, 2002, pp. 1096-1103. doi:10.1093/aje/155.12.1096
[13] L. G. Salford, A. Brun, K. Sturesson, J. L. Eberharott and B. R. R. Person, “Permeability of the Blood—Brain Barrier Induced by 915 MHZ Electromagnetic Radiation, Continuous Wave and Modulated at 8.16.50. and 200 HZ,” Medical Profession, Vol. 34, 1994, pp. 234-241.
[14] G. T. Liu, X. J. Wang, B. Q. Ai and L. G. Liu, “Numerical Study of Pulsatile Flow through a Tapered Artery with Stenosis,” Chinese Journal of Physics, Vol. 42, No. 4, 2004, pp. 401-409.
[15] P. K. Mandal, “An Unsteady Analysis of Non-Newtonian Blood Flow through Tapered Arteries with a Stenosis,” International Journal of Non-Linear Mechanics, Vol. 40, No. 1, 2005, pp. 151-164. doi:10.1016/j.ijnonlinmec.2004.07.007
[16] R. Bali, and U. Awasthi, “Effect of Magnetic Field on the Resistance to Blood Flow through Stenotic Artery,” Applied Mathematics and Computation, Vol. 188, No. 2, 2007, pp. 1635-1641. doi:10.1016/j.amc.2006.11.019
[17] G. Varshney, V. K. Katiyar and K. Sushil, “Effect of Magnetic Field on the Blood Flow in Artery Having Multiple Stenosis: A Numerical Study,” International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2012, pp. 67-82.
[18] N. T. Kuipers, C. L. Sauder and C. A. Ray, “Influence of Static Magnetic Fields on Pain Perception and Sympathetic Nerve Activity in Humans,” Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol. 102, No. 4, 2007, pp. 1410-1415. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00734.2006
[19] M. Turgeon, “Clinical Hematology,” Little Brown Company, New York, 1988.
[20] J. B. Maite, “Laboratory Medicine Hematology,” 5th Edition, Mosby Company, Saint Louis, 1977.
[21] R. W. Dudek, “High-Yield Histology,” 2nd Edition, Lippincott Williams & Willkins, Philadelphia, 2000.
[22] A. R. Fatayer, “Hematology (Theoretical and Practical) Culture Library House for Publication and Distribution,” Journal of Environmental Studies, Vol. 2, 2006, pp. 223229.
[23] R. G. D. Steel and J. H. Torrie, “Principles and Procedures of Statistics,” 2nd Edition, McGraw Hill Book Company, New York, 1980.
[24] R. Soud, “Human and the Environment (Education Study of the Environment) Dar Al-Hamed for Publication and Distribution,” Journal of Environmental Studies, Vol. 1, 2004, pp. 23-31.
[25] A. G. Althbyta, “Introduction of Haematology and Blood Diseases, Laboratory Diagnostic Methods,” King Fahd National Library, Riyadh, 2002.
[26] A. Al Shaer and H. I. E. Kaanan, “Haematology,” 1991.
[27] G. Clark, “Staining Procedures,” Lippincott Williams & Willkins, Philadelphia, 1988.
[28] H. A. Zelly, “Do Not Harm from Them If We Avoided Risks: Equipment Hair Potential Health Problems,” Welcome to the magazine, San Francisco, 2007.
[29] B. S. Anderson and A. K. Tlenderson, “Cancer Incidence in Census tracts with Broadcasting Towers in Honolulu, Hawii,” State of Hawaii Department of Health, 1996.
[30] G. Maskarines, J. Cooper and L. Swygert, “Investigating of Increased Incidence in Childhood Leukemia near Radio Towers in Hawaii: Preliminary Observations,” Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology, Vol. 13, No. 1, 1994, pp. 33-37.
[31] D. R. Mckenzie, Y, Yin and S. Morels, “Childhood Incidence of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Exposure to Broadcast Radiation in Sydney—A Second Look,” Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, Vol. 22, No. 3, 1998, pp. 360-367. doi:10.1111/j.1467-842X.1998.tb01392.x
[32] S. J. London, D. C. Thomas, J. D. Bowman, E. Sobel, T. C. Cheng and J. M. Peters, “Exposure to Residential Electric and Magnetic Field and Risk of Childhood Leukemia,” American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 134, No. 9, 1991, pp. 923-937.
[33] S. Takahashi, S. Inagume, Y. Cho, K. Imaida and T. Shirai, “Lack of Mutation Induction with Exposure to 1.5 GHz Electromagnetic near Fields Used for Cellular Phones in Brain of Big Blue Mice,” Cancer Research, Vol. 62, No. 7, 2002, pp. 1956-1960.
[34] K. Ikeda, Y. Shin-Mura, H. Mizoa, H. Yoshizawa and H. Roses, “No Effects of Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields Found on Cytotoxic Activitites and Cytokine Production of Human Peripheral Blood Monocuclea Cells in Vitro,” Bioelectromagnatic, Vol. 24, No. 1, 2003, pp. 21-31. doi:10.1002/bem.10062
[35] J. A. Dennis, C. R. Muirhead and J. R. Ennis, “Human Health and Exposures to Electromagnetic Radiation,” National Radiation Protection Board Report, London, 1992.
[36] P. K. Verkasalo, E. Pukkala and M. Y. Hongisto, “Risk of Cancer in Finnish Children Living Close to Power Lines,” British Medical Journal, Vol. 307, No. 6909, 1993, pp. 895-899. doi:10.1136/bmj.307.6909.895
[37] R. A. Kleinerman, W. T. Kaune, E. F. Hatch, S. Wacholer, M. S. Linet, et al., “Are Children Living near High Voltage Power Lines at Increased Risk of Acuto Lymphoblastic Leukemra,” American Journal of Epidemiology, Vol. 151, No. 5, 2000, pp. 512-515. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a010237
[38] E. B. Willett, P. A. Mckneey, N. T. Fear, et al., “Occupational and Acute Leukemia: Analysis of a Case-Control Study,” Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 60, 2003, pp. 577-583. doi:10.1136/oem.60.8.577
[39] H. Sayed, “Atlas of Descriptive Anatomy: Cell and Tissue Biology of Fetuses,” Arab Book Library House, Jeddah, 2005
[40] H. Carr and B. F. Rodek, “Clinical Hematology Atlas,” Saunders Company, Philadelphia, 1999.
[41] A. V. Hoffbrand, J. E. Pettit and P. A. Moss, “Hematology,” 4th Edition, G. Canale & C. S.p.A. Company, Jeddah, 2002.
[42] S. Martin, et al., “Clinical Hematology,” 2nd Edition, Lippincott Williams & Willkins, Philadelphia, 1998.
[43] R. Seza, et al., “Radio Cellular Telephones Do Not Disturb the Secrttion of Antepituitay Hormones in Humans,” Bioelectromagntics, Vol. 19, No. 3, 1998, pp. 444-449.
[44] F. Ali, “Choose between Using a Mobile Phone Frequently Lead to Premature Aging,” Journal of Environmental Studies, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2006, pp. 132-137.
[45] C. Yao, X. Li and Y. Xiong, “Instant Effects of Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Wave on Hemoglobin in Single Living Intact Red Blood Cell,” Chinese Chermical Letters, Vol. 16, No. 8, 2005, pp. 1121-1124.
[46] WHO, “Wireless Electric Devices and Health,” 2006.
[47] D. Black and L. N. Heynik, “Radiofrequency (RF) Effects on Blood Cells, Cardiac, Endocrine and Immunologicalfunctions,” Biolelectromanetics, Vol. 6, 2003, pp. 51875195
[48] L. Stronati, A. Testa, P. Villanai and E. Cordelli, “Absence of Genotoxicity in Human Blood Cells Exposed to 50 Hz Magnetic Fields as Assessed by Comet Assay, Chromosome Aberration, Micronucles and Sister Chromatic Exchange Analyses,” Bioelectromagnetic, Vol. 25, No. 1, 2004, pp. 41-48. doi:10.1002/bem.10141

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.