Share This Article:

Hypoadiponectinemia: Association with risk of varying degrees of gestational hyperglycemia and with maternal ethnicity

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:186KB) PP. 196-202
DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2012.22031    3,906 Downloads   5,816 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aims of this study were to examine the influence of maternal hypoadiponectinemia on the risk of varying degrees of gestational hyperglycemia as well as on ethnic differences in circulating levels of adiponectin. Methods: A case-control study nested within a prospective cohort of healthy pregnant women compared those who developed gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, N = 80), or had an impaired glucose challenge test (GCT) non-GDM (defined as 1hr plasma glucose >140 mg/dl after a 50-g oral glucose load when screening for GDM but did not meet the diagnostic criteria for GDM by a diagnostic oral glucose tolerance test, N = 128) to normal controls (N = 557). Concentrations of serum adiponectin were determined at entry (~17 weeks) and during the 3rd trimester. Results: With multivariable adjustment, entry hypoadiponectinemia (the lowest tertile vs. other tertiles pooled) was strongly associated with an increased risk of GDM (AOR 2.68, 95% CI 1.62 - 4.41) and with impaired GCT non-GDM (AOR 1.58, 95% CI 1.05 - 2.38). This association persisted after adjustment for pregravid BMI despite the fact that the risk in obese women with low adiponectin was higher. Similar data were obtained during the 3rd trimester. The concentration of adiponectin during the 3rd trimester was significantly lower in African Americans compared to Hispanics or Caucasians and this difference was detectable in both cases and controls (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01 for each). Conclusions: The present results identified a unique graded association between hypoadiponectinemia during early pregnancy with risk of GDM and less severe hyperglycemia non-GDM independent of maternal BMI. The relationship persisted to the 3rd trimester. African American women have lower adiponectin level than Caucasian or Hispanic women. Hypoadiponectinemia may play a significant pathophysiological role in the development of GDM and of less severe gestational hyperglycemia.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Chen, X. , O. Scholl, T. and Peter Stein, T. (2012) Hypoadiponectinemia: Association with risk of varying degrees of gestational hyperglycemia and with maternal ethnicity. Journal of Diabetes Mellitus, 2, 196-202. doi: 10.4236/jdm.2012.22031.

References

[1] Okui, H., Hamasaki, S., Ishida, S., Kataoka, T., Orihara, K., Fukudome, T., et al. (2008) Adiponectin is a better predictor of endothelial function of the coronary artery than HOMA-R, body mass index, immunoreative insulin, or triglycerides. International Journal of Cardiology, 26, 53-61. doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2007.03.116
[2] Retnakaran, R., Hanley, A.J.G., Raif, N., Hirning, C.R., Connelly, P.W., Sermer, M., et al. (2005) Adiponectin and beta cell dysfunction in gestational diabetes: Pathophysiological implications. Diabetologia, 48, 993-1001. doi:10.1007/s00125-005-1710-x
[3] Krakoff, J., Funahashi, T., Stehouwer, C.D.A., Schalkwijk, C.G., Tanaka, S., Matsuzawa, Y., et al. (2003) Inflammatory markers, adiponectin, and risk of type 2 diabetes in the Pima Indian. Diabetes Care, 26, 1745-1751. doi:10.2337/diacare.26.6.1745
[4] Tan, K.C.B., Xu, A., Chow, W.S., Lam, M.C.W., Ai, V.H.G., Tam, S.C.F., et al. (2004) Hypoadiponectinemia is associated with impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 89, 765-769. doi:10.1210/jc.2003-031012
[5] Duncan, B.B., Schmidt, M.I., Pankow, J.S., Bang, H., Couper, D., Ballantyne, C.M., et al. (2004) Adiponectin and the development of type 2 diabetes: The atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Diabetes, 53, 2473-2478. doi:10.2337/diabetes.53.9.2473
[6] Williams, M.A., Qiu, C., Muy-Rivera, M., Vadachkoria, S., Song, T. and Luthy, D.A. (2004) Plasma adiponectin concentrations in early pregnancy and subsequent risk of gestational diabetes mellitus. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 89, 2306-2311. doi:10.1210/jc.2003-031201
[7] Ranheim, T., Haugen, F., Staff, A.C., Braekke, K., Harsem, N.K. and Drevon, C.A. (2004) Adiponectin is reduced in gestational diabetes mellitus in normal weight women. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, 83, 341-347.
[8] Tsai, P.J., Yu, C.H., Hsu, S.P., Lee, Y.H., Huang, I.T., et al. (2005) Maternal plasma adiponectin concentrations at 24 to 31 weeks of gestation: Negative association with gestational diabetes mellitus. Nutrition, 21, 1095-1099. doi:10.1016/j.nut.2005.03.008
[9] Retnakaran, R., Hanley, A.J.G., Raif, N., Connelly, P.W., Sermer, M. and Zinman, B. (2004) Reduced adiponectin concentration in women with gestational diabetes: A potential factor in progression to type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 27, 799-800. doi:10.2337/diacare.27.3.799
[10] The HAPO Study Cooperative Research Group. (2008) Hyperglycemia and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The New England Journal of Medicine, 358, 1991-2002. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0707943
[11] Catalano, P.M., Hoegh, M., Minium, J., Huston-Presley, L., Bernard, S., et al. (2006) Adiponectin in human pregnancy: Implications for regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Diabetologia, 49, 1677-1685. doi:10.1007/s00125-006-0264-x
[12] Chen, X., Scholl, T.O., Leskiw, M., Savaille, J. and Stein, T.P. (2010) Differences in maternal circulating fatty acid composition and dietary fat intake in women with gestational diabetes mellitus or mild gestational hyperglycemia. Diabetes Care, 33, 2049-2054. doi:10.2337/dc10-0693
[13] Ervin, R.B. (2009) Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among adults 20 years of age and over, by sex, age, race and ethnicity, and body mass index: United States, 2003-2006. National Health Statistics Report, 5, 1-7.
[14] Cossrow, N. and Falkner, B. (2004) Race/ethnic issues in obesity and obesity-related comorbidities. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 89, 2590-2594. doi:10.1210/jc.2004-0339
[15] Karastergiou, K., Mohamed-Ali, V., Jahangiri, M. and Kaski, J.C. (2009) Adiponectin for prediction of cardiovascular risk? The British Journal of Diabetes and Vascular Disease, 9, 150-154. doi:10.1177/1474651409341326
[16] Mather, K.J., Funahashi, T., Matsuzawa, Y., Edelstein, S., Bray, G.A., et al. (2008) Adiponectin, change in adiponectin, and progression to diabetes in the diabetes prevention program. Diabetes, 57, 980-986. doi:10.2337/db07-1419
[17] Webster, B.H. and Bishaw, A. (2006) Income, earnings, and poverty data from the 2005 American Community Survey. http:www.census.gov/prod/2006pubs/acs-02.pdf
[18] American Diabetes Association. (2000) Clinical practice recommendations 2000: Position statement. Gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care, 23, S77-S79.
[19] Lowe, L.P., Metzger, B.E., Lowe Jr., W.L., Dyer, A.R., McDade, T.W. and McIntyre, H.D. (2010) Inflammatory mediators and glucose in pregnancy: Results from a subset of the hyperglycemia and adverse pregnancy outcome (HAPO) study. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 95, 5427-5434. doi:10.1210/jc.2010-1662
[20] Kanaya, A.M., Harris, T., Goodpaster, B.H., Tylavsky, F. and Cummings, S.R. (2004) Adipocytokines attenuate the association between visceral adiposity and diabetes in older adults. Diabetes Care, 27, 1375-1380. doi:10.2337/diacare.27.6.1375
[21] Winzer, C., Wagner, O., Festa, A., Schneider, B., Roden, M., et al. (2004) Plasma adiponectin, insulin sensitivity, and subclinical inflammation in women with prior gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care, 27, 1721-1727. doi:10.2337/diacare.27.7.1721
[22] Yanovski, J.A., Yanovski, S.Z., Filmer, K.M., Hubbard, V.S., Avila, N., et al. (1996) Differences in body composition of black and white girls. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 64, 833-839.
[23] Khoo, C.M., Sairazi, S., Taslim, S., Gardner, D., Wu, Y., et al. (2011) Ethnicity modifies the relationships of insulin resistance, inflammation, and adiponectin with obesity in a multiethnic Asian population. Diabetes Care, 34, 1120-1126. doi:10.2337/dc10-2097
[24] Chen, X. and Scholl, T.O. (2002) Ethnic differences in C-peptide/insulin/glucose dynamics in young pregnant women. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 87, 4642-4646. doi:10.1210/jc.2001-011949

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.