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Steps to the clinic with ELF EMF

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DOI: 10.4236/ns.2009.13020    4,990 Downloads   10,127 Views   Citations


There have been many models to identify and analyze low-frequency motions in protein and DNA molecules. It has been successfully used to simulate various low-frequency collective motions in protein and DNA molecules. Low- frequency motions in biomacromolecules origi- nate from two common and intrinsic character-istics; i.e., they contain 1) a series of weak bonds, such as hydrogen bonds, and 2) a sub-stantial mass distributed over the region of these weak bonds. Many biological functions and dynamic mechanisms, including coopera-tive effects have been reported. In this regard, some phenomenological theories were estab-lished. However, differences in experimental outcomes are expected since many factors could influence the outcome of experiments in EMF research. Any effect of EMF has to depend on the energy absorbed by a biological organ-ism and on how the energy is delivered in space and time. Frequency, intensity, exposure dura-tion, and the number of exposure episodes can affect the response, and these factors can inter- act with each other to produce different effects. In addition, in order to understand the biologi- cal consequence of EMF exposure, one must know whether the effect is cumulative, whether compensatory responses result, and when ho-meostasis will break down. Such findings will have great potential for use in translation medi-cine at the clinical level without being invasive.

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The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Madkan, A. , Blank, M. , Elson, E. , Chou, K. , S. Geddis, M. and Goodman, R. (2009) Steps to the clinic with ELF EMF. Natural Science, 1, 157-165. doi: 10.4236/ns.2009.13020.


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