T. ELENA 77
We consider that these are the solutions also for the Romanian
society. The value-attitudinal change is possible, but on long
term, as a consequence of the economic, socio-political and
educational factors convergence.
Professional Values in the Technical Academic
Education: Identification and Hierarchy
At the basis of the value identification and hierarchy, gener-
ally and of the professional values especially, there stand sev-
eral researches that lead to the elaboration of some different
theories and concepts: —theories about the personality charac-
teristics and factors, Parsons (1909), Kitson (1925), Hull (1928),
—psych-analytical theories about career, Hendrik (1943), R.
Foser (1953) Malning (1967), Neff (1968), —theories about
psychological needs and of the personality values Murray
(1938), Maslow (1954), Darley and Hogenah (1955), Wolf
(1970), —theories about social systems, C. Miller, W. H. Form
(1951), T. Caplow (1954), M. Harmany (1964), W. H. Sewell
and R. M. Hauser (1975), —theories about the development of
the self concept, C. Buchler (1933), E. Gingsberg and his col-
laborators (1951), J. Samler (1953), R. Happock (1957), C. H.
Miller (1974), that include G. W. Allport, D. E. Super, E. H.
Erikson and P. Lazarsfeld’s ideas, —theories about career plan-
ning (management of the professional career) (Ion Murgescu,
E. D. Super is the one who proposed the theory of the devel-
opment of self concept, applied to the behaviors specific to the
professional choice. The individual’s options are influenced by
self image and information about the jobs world. The option for
a certain profession is not just a decision moment, but also a
process and a succession of intermediary choices made in dif-
ferent life moments and related to various levels of growth and
development and ability, aptitude and skill exercising, in vari-
ous lifestyle situations. The professional orientation is for Super
the process by which a person is supported to develop and ac-
cept a complete and adequate image about the self and about
the his/her role in the labor world and is helped to test this role
in front of the reality, in order to obtain the self satisfaction also
in the best interest of the society.
From the theory analysis those results that the counseling and
orientation services need to have a continuous character during
the individual’s evolution especially in the steps before the
great decisions: the choice of the school, of the profession, of
the work place, in the moment of re-qualification and retire-
This theory is built around 14 statements:
Statement 1: People are different by their capacities and
personality, by their needs, interests, characteristics and con-
ceptions about self.
The conception about the self is defining for all the life roles,
being part of this also the professional role in a certain career.
Statement 2: People are qualified in the virtue of these char-
acteristics for several professions.
Statement 3: Each statement needs a certain specific model
of personal qualities and features, with a quite big tolerance in
order to afford a certain variety of individuals for each profess-
These two statements are optimist as far as the people varied
possibilities to have several professions, occupational multi-
determination starting from the same quality complex, but also
from different quality systems for the same profession.
Statement 4: Professional preferences and competences, the
situations in which people live and work and as a consequence
their conception about the self, are modified in time and with
experience, although self conceptions as a product of social
experience are more and stable starting with the end of ado-
lescence and to the late maturity, providing a certain continuity
in options and adaptations.
Statement 5: This change process can be added to s series of
life stages (a maxi-cycle) characterized a sequence-growth-ex-
ploration-stabilization-maintenance-disengagement and these
stages can be sub-divided at their turn into periods character-
ized by certain supposed development tasks. A small cycle
(mini-cycle) there appears in the career transition period from
one stage to another when a individual’s career is destabilized
because of a disease or an accident, of staff reduction, social
changes, in the needs of human resources or other socio-eco-
nomic or personal events. Such an unstable career implies a
re-cycling, a new growth, re-exploration and re-stabilization
Statements 4 and 5 explain the preferences and professional
competences dynamics as a consequence of the life experience
and thus as a consequence also the career change possibility
from one stage to another of even of the profession.
Statement 6: Career model nature, that is the occupational
reached level and the succession, frequency and trials of the
jobs is determined by the socio-economic level of that person’s
parents, by the mental capacity, education, personal qualities
and characteristics (needs, values, interests, self conception)
and career maturity, as well as the opportunities to which the
person is exposed.
Socio-economic life environment, cultural and education
context, person’s features, values and self conception have an
essential role in the career choice, keeping and change.
Statement 7: The success before the environment and organ-
isms demands depends in all the career stages on the individ-
ual’s availability to comply with these demands (in the maturity
period of his career).
The career success cannot be obtained without the person’s
availability to make efforts to comply with the high demands of
Statement 8: Career maturity is a psychosocial concept that
designates an individual’s development degree during the con-
tinuous evolution represented by the life levels and sub-levels
from growth to disengagement. From the social or society per-
spective, career maturity can be defined operationally by com-
paring the development tasks with which the individual con-
fronts to the ones the people around him expect to be fulfilled
by him in certain stages of chronologic age. From the psycho-
logical perspective, career maturity is operationally defined by
comparing the resources of which the individual disposes both
from the cognitive and affective point of view in order to com-
ply with a current task, with the necessary resources in order to
solve that task.
Career maturity is seen both from the social point of view as
a report between the person’s possibilities and the expectations
of the persons around him to solve the tasks, as well as from the
psychological point of view as a report between the person’s
resources and the resources necessary to solve that task.