American Journal of Plant Sciences, 2013, 4, 1815-1820 Published Online September 2013 (
Total Phenolic, Flavonoids, Tannin Content and
Antioxidant Power of Some Iranian Pomegranate Flower
Cultivars (Punica granatum L.)*
Mannan Hajimahmoodi1,2#, Ghazaleh Moghaddam1, Ali Mohammad Ranjbar1, Hossein Khazani3,
Naficeh Sadeghi1, Mohammad Reza Oveisi1, Behrooz Jannat4
1Department of Drug and Food Control, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2Department of
Traditional, Faculty of Traditional Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 3Department of Biology, Tarbiat
Moalem University, Tehran, Iran; 4Ministry of Health and Medical Education, Research Center, Tehran, Iran.
Received July 10th, 2013; revised August 10th, 2013; accepted August 25th, 2013
Copyright © 2013 Mannan Hajimahmoodi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution
License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Recently, pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) was demonstrated to be high in antioxidant activity and strong in phenolic,
flavonoid and tannin contents in its fruit, flower and also aerial part. In this paper six cultivars of Iranian pomegranate
flower including Ghojagh, Rabbab, Malas, Shishegap, Danesiah and Golnar have been investigated. The maximum
amount of total phenolic was detected in Ghojagh (25.94 mg·GAEg–1) and flavonoid showed the highest content in
Danesiah (23.06 mg·CEg–1). The lowest content of these two groups was observed in Golnar (15.19 mg·GAEg–1 and
11.46 mg·CEg–1). Measurement of tannin compounds showed that Rabbab by 2.03% and Golnar by 1.06% have the
highest and lowest amount respectively. According to the FRAP method, Ghojagh and Golnar have the highest and low-
est antioxidant values respectively (452.53 mmol·g–1 and 123.39 mmol·g–1). As a result of HPLC-DPPH method, Malas
and Danesiah have the highest and lowest antioxidant value (116.38 and 97.64 mgVEEg–1).
Keywords: Pomegranate; Flower; Antioxidant; Phenolic; HPLC
1. Introduction
Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) which is widely cul-
tivated in Iran has been popular worldwide over the years
originated from Middle East and Iran [1,2]. The pome-
granate fruit has been commercialized and can be found
as juice, jellies, wine. The wide adoption of the pome-
granate is due to the recent studies that mentioned it that
contains a high amount of antioxidants which are benefi-
cial to our health in many ways [3-6]. Its great flavor and
health benefits have made it a great candidate for those
who search natural healthy foods [7]. Pomegranate is an
important source of bioactive compounds and different
parts of it have been used in medicine for many centuries
[3,8] and the edible parts used pharmaceutically world-
wide. In tradition medicine, the pricarp was used by
Chinese for the treatment of diarrhea, metrorrhagia, met-
rostaxis and bellyache. The flower was used as a flower
supplement to treat diabetes mellitus in Unani medicine
and the diarrhea was treatment by pomegranate fruit in
South Africa [9]. Pomegranate juice has been demon-
strated to be high in antioxidant activity and is effective
in the prevention of atherosclerosis, coronary heart dis-
ease and cancer [4,10]. There are some reports about the
presence of tannins, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids and
phenolic compounds as antioxidant factors in juice, peel,
pulp, and seed fractions of pomegranate [11-13]. In the
case of flower, the pomegranate flowers had a medicinal
use in Traditional Iranian Medicine and also in the cur-
rent studies [14,15]. In folk medicine the decoction of
flowers is used to stop bleeding and purging [16,17].
Pomegranate flowers (golnar) contain a variety of sec-
ondary metabolites such as poly phenols with strong an-
tioxidant activity [18]. The polyphenols in pomegranate
flowers have ellagic acid which had a marked inhibitory
effect on the occurrence and development of tumours in
mice [19]; triterpenes show antimutagenic and anticar-
cinogenic effects [20]; and oleanolic acid significantly
*The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.
#Corresponding author.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. AJPS
Total Phenolic, Flavonoids, Tannin Content and Antioxidant Power of Some Iranian Pomegranate
Flower Cultivars (Punica granatum L.)
enhanced acute glucose-stimulated insulin secretion at
basal and stimulatory glucose concentrations inpancreatic
b-cell. Such effects may contribute to the antidiabetic
properties [21]. The bright colour of pomegranate flow-
ers and arils is due to anthocyanins [22]; however, only
one anthocyanin compound (i.e. pelargonidin-3,5-diglu-
coside) has yet been identified in pomegranate flowers
using HPLC [23], whereas in pomegranate juice, prince-
pally cyanidin-3-O-glucoside, cyanidin-3,5-di-O-glucoside,
delphinidin-3-O-glucoside, delphinidin-3,5-di-O-glucoside,
pelargonid in-3-O-glucoside, and pelargonidin-3,5-di-O-
glucoside, have been reported [24, 25]. Oleanolic acid,
ursolic acid and gallic acid, active components contained
in pomegranate flower [26], have long been recognized
to have antihyperlipidemic properties [27,28]. It is known
that the amount of organic acids, phenolic compounds,
sugars, water-soluble vitamins, and minerals of all parts
of pomegranates are different in various researches which
may be attributed to their cultivar origins [29,30].
Therefore, in this study, the contents of total phenolic,
flavonoids, and tannins of the some Iranian pomegranate
flower cultivars and their antioxidant activity were inves-
tigated through the FRAP and HPLC-DPPH methods.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Sample Preparation
Six cultivars of pomegranate’s flower were obtained from
Agricultural Research Center, Yazd, Iran. The flowers
varieties (Malas, Shishegap, Danesiah, Rabbab, Ghojagh
and Golnar) were harvested during May 2012 from dif-
[35] T. Katsube, H. Tabata, Y. Ohta, Y. Yamasaki, E. Anuurad,
K. Shiwaku and Y. Yamane, “Screening for Antioxidant
Activity in Edible Plant Products: Comparison of Low-
Density Lipoprotein Oxidation Assay, DPPH Radical
Scavenging Assay and Folin-Ciocalteu Assay,” Journal
of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Vol. 52, No. 8, 2004,
pp. 2391-2396. doi:10.1021/jf035372g
[36] W. Horwitz and G. Latimer, “Official Methods of Analy-
sis of AOAC International.”
[37] M. R. Shams Ardekani, M. R. Oveisi, N. Sadeghi, B.
Jannat, A. M. Ranjbar, N. Gholam and T. Moridi, “Com-
parative Antioxidant Activity and Total Flavonoid Con-
tent of Persian Pomegranate [Punica Granatum L.] Cul-
tivars,” Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Vol.
10, No. 3, 2011, pp. 519-524.
[38] A. K. Batta and S. Rangaswami, “Crystalline Chemical
Components of Some Vegetable Drugs,” Phytochemistry,
Vol. 12, 1973, pp. 214-216.
[39] H. H. Orak, H. Yagar and S. S. Isbilir, “Comparison of
Antioxidant Activities of Juice, Peel and Seed of Pome-
granate [punica granatum l.] and Inter-Relationships with
Total Phenolic, Tannin, Anthocyanin and Flavonoid Con-
tents,” Food Science and Biotechnology, Vol. 21, No. 2,
2012, pp. 373-387. doi:10.1007/s10068-012-0049-6