Open Journal of Marine Science, 2013, 3, 76-86
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ojms.2013.32A008 Published Online June 2013 (http://www.scirp.org/journal/ojms)
The Future of Benthic Indicators: Moving up
to the Intertidal
1University Lille Nord de France, Université Lille 1 Sciences et Technologies,
Laboratoire d’Océanologie et Géosciences (LOG), Wimereux, France
2CNRS, UMR 8187 Laboratoire d’Océanologie et Géosciences (LOG), Wimereux, France
3Environmental Futures Centre, Griffith University, Gold Coast Campus, Australia
Received April 19, 2013; revised May 21, 2013; accepted June 2, 2013
Copyright © 2013 Nicolas Spilmont. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The use of benthic indicators has increased dramatically during the last decades. The number of articles published on
the subject, as well as the number of citations, has been particularly increasing since the early 90’s, notably in relation
with the implementation of directives for the management of aquatic/marine ecosystems such as the Water Framework
Directive and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Current benthic indicators suffer from severe drawbacks and
their practical use is still discussed and might have reached a dead end. Indicators based on species composition are not
totally satisfactory, mainly because they exhibit a high spatio-temporal variability (e.g. variable at both seasonal and
pluri-annual scales) and are user-dependent (e.g. divergent results from US or Europe experts.) In turn, modifications of
behaviour, metabolism, phenotype or stable isotopes composition in invertebrates usually occur at short time scales,
compared to detectable changes in community composition, and makes their use particularly relevant as indicators of
perturbation. It is argued in this paper that these functional indicators might be relatively quickly implemented in the
intertidal, and represent an effective alternative to current benthic indicators.
Keywords: Benthic Indicators; Intertidal; Ecosystem Functioning; Anthropogenic Disturbance; Global Change
Global climate change is now unequivocal [1,2], and
publications on the topic are legion; see e.g. [3,4] for
reviews. Coastal ecosystems are increasingly threatened
by the combined effects of global warming and its direct
and indirect consequences (e.g. erosion and sea level rise)
and other major anthropogenic pressures (including
habitat change, invasive species, eutrophication, chemi-
cal pollution, overexploitation ), which justify the de-
velopment of ecological indicators to evaluate their
health (see  for a review). The concept of indicators in
aquatic ecology and ecosystem management is not recent
and indicators are now considered as “mainstream tools”
in assessing the quality of aquatic ecosystems . Their
use has increased dramatically during the last few dec-
ades [8,9], notably in relation with the implementation of
international directions for the management of aquatic/
marine ecosystems such as the Water Framework Direc-
tive (WFD, 2000/60/EC) and the Marine Strategy
Framework Directive (MSFD, 2008/56/EC) in Europe
(see e.g. ). In this context, due to their sedentarily
and long life span, benthic organisms are considered as
good integrators of environmental changes in marine
ecosystems and have been extensively used as indicators
for ecosystem changes (e.g. [9,11,12]). The practical use
of current benthic indicators in marine ecosystems is,
however, still fiercely discussed (e.g. ). In this paper,
after a short review and bibliometric survey, I will stress
how the study of intertidal ecosystems could help to im-
plement new indicators that would, in tidal seas, com-
plete, if not replace, current benthic indicators.
2. Benthic Indicators: Where Are W e?
Benthic indicators (see e.g. [13,14] for definitions) are a
particularly popular topic in marine sciences; the ISI
Web Of Science (accessed April 10, 2013 for the combi-
nation “benthic indices or benthic indicator* and marine”)
returned 3306 papers published and 54,282 citations be-
tween 1967 and 2012. Papers dealing with benthic indi-
cators are amongst the ten most cited papers in special-
opyright © 2013 SciRes. OJMS
N. SPILMONT 77
ized journals such as Marine Pollution Bulletin ( and
 with 363 and 272 citations, respectively) and Eco-
logical Indicators ([17-20] with 69, 70, 89 and 93 cita-
tions, respectively.) The number of articles published on
the subject, as well as the number of citations, has been
drastically increasing since the early 90’s (Figure 1 ).
The related mean annual growth rate [21,22] for the
period 1991-2012 has subsequently been estimated from
the slope α of the semi logarithmic plot of the number of
articles published vs. time as 12.4% (Figure 2).
It is, however, well known that the growth rate of sci-
entific publication is almost constantly raising [21,22].
Therefore, data from the ISI Web Of Science were also
collected for all published papers and for papers pub-
lished in marine sciences only (i.e. records containing
“marine”) for the period 1991-2012 (Figure 2). Using
the approach described above, the mean annual growth
rate for all fields combined was 4.1% and 7.0% for ma-
rine sciences specifically, both being significantly lower
than the 12.4% for benthic indicators (t-test for slope
comparison, p < 0.05.) Note that the sharp increase ob-
served in the early 90’s is also seen for marine sciences,
but not for the overall outputs from the Web of Science.
This feature was previously detected for several fields in
ecology , for example for studies related to coastal
biogeochemistry , pollution in estuaries  and
Number of citations
Number of reco rds
Figure 1. Number of publications (bars) and number of citations (solid line) in the field of marine benthic indicators (i.e. fo r
the keywords combination “benthic indices or benthic indicator* and marine”) recovered from the ISI Web of Knowledge
database (accessed early March 2013) for the period 1967 (first reference in the field)-2012.
1967 1972 1977 1982 1987 1992 1997 2002 2007 2012
Log (records + 1)
α = 0.051
α = 0.029
α = 0.017
Figure 2. Number of records in the ISI Web of Science database (accessed early March 2013, semi logarithmic scale) for ma-
rine benthic indicators (i.e. for the keywords combination “benthic indices or benthic indicator* and marine”, circles), ma-
rine sciences (i.e. for the keyword “marine”, triangles) and total number of records in the database (squares). The slopes α
rom the linear regressions are given for the period 1991-2012. f
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. OJMS
eutrophication . Interestingly enough, there is no
significant change in the slope (summed cumulated func-
tion method ), hence in the growth rate, of publica-
tions on marine benthic indicators in the 2000’s. This
suggests that the vote and implementation of both the
WFD (2000) and MSFD (2008) did not have any signifi-
cant impact on the publication efforts, though more than
300 new methods were described for the WFD .
Due to the variety of existing benthic indicators, most
of the recent papers aimed to compare their efficiency
using different sampling methods (sampler and mesh size
), taxonomic levels [29,30], or testing experts from
USA and Europe . Numerous studies also compared
the consistency of different indicators for evaluating the
ecological status of a selected area [11,12,20,32-41].
Overall, these comparisons revealed inconsistencies be-
tween indicator responses, some sampling stations being
classified either in a “poor” or “high” ecological status
depending on the index used , or samples considered
as either “unaffected” or “severely affected” depending
on the expert [12,31]. This short review demonstrates, as
recently stressed , that current benthic indicators suf-
fer from severe drawbacks (Table 1 ) and do not fulfil the
requirements for being “good indicators” sensu .
Most of them are usually specific to a habitat or geo-
graphical area (for a review see e.g. ) and highly
variable at both seasonal [43,44] and pluri-annual scales
. Most authors usually agree on, for example, the
general efficiency of the AMBI and the derived M-
AMBI [34,37,40,41,46,47] or the relative ineffective-
ness of the BOPA index [32,48,49]. However, the prac-
tical use of benthic indicators might have reach a dead
end, since no real consensus has been reached yet and
inter-calibration and standardisation are still needed, as
shown by the ongoing inundation of papers related to
comparesons or intercalibrations (see references here
Recently, indices have been developed (or revised)
based on other benthic groups than macrofauna, such as
macroalgae either alone [52,53] or combined with mac-
rofauna , and meiofauna, including nematods 
and foraminifera [56,57]. These indices however share
disadvantages with macofauna-based indices, such as the
requirement of a high degree of specialisation (particu-
larly for some meiofaunal groups such as nematods ),
and contribute to the current indicator inundation that
sometimes leads to awkward situations when the indice
values are much more difficult to determine than the en-
vironmental factor it is supposed to be representative of
(e.g. living foraminifera assemblages diversity as an in
Table 1. Selected examples of the main drawbacks of current benthic indicators.
Drawback Example Reference
Major differences in the ecological classification for 7% of the samples
examined by expert from France and Algeria 
Expert dependence Major differences in the ecological classification for 58% of the samples
examined by expert from Europe and USA 
Major differences in the ecological classification for 28% to 48% of the sta-
tions analysed, depending on the sieving method (0.5 mm vs. 1 mm mesh
size, tested on 3 different indicators)
Methodological dependence Major differences in the ecological classification for 17% to 83% of the
stations analysed, depending on the sampling method (Van Veen grab vs.
corere, tested on 7 different indicators)
Five different biotic indices disagreed on the status of 65% to 90 % of the sta-
tions sampled in semi-ecnlosed systems and transitional waters 
Dissimilarity of the ecological status obtained by 6 indices varied from 3% to
64 % (stations sampled in coastal and lagoon locations) 
Major differences in the ecological classification for 74 % of the stations
examined depending on the indicator used (3 tested) 
Major differences in the ecological classification of a single sampling station
along a pluri-annual survey (using the M-AMBI and BENTIX indices) 
Major differences in the ecological classification of 3 sampling stations at the
seasonal scale (5 indices tested) 
Major differences in the ecological classification of a single sampling station
along a long-term (30 year) survey (6 indicators tested) 
Five digits for the BOPA index (e.g. 0.04576 < BOPA < 0.13966 and 0.13966
< BOPA < 0.19382 for a good and moderate ecological status, respectively) 
Operational limits Five digits for the BO2A index (e.g. 0.01951 < BO2A < 0.13100 and 0.13101
< BO2A < 0.19804 for a good and moderate ecological status, respectively) 
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. OJMS
N. SPILMONT 79
dicator of dissolved O2 concentration .) Besides, the
claim that indicators’ outputs and interpretation should
be understood by non-scientists [38,59] (see however 
for criticisms), leads to a jargon where some terms do not
have any ecological reality anymore (this is the case for
the widely used “reference state” [6,61]) or have differ-
ent meanings in a management and a purely ecological
context, such as “ecosystem” [62,63], which also con-
tributes to the general confusion.
3. Where to Go Next?
As stated above, benthic indicators based on species
composition are not totally satisfactory as communities
can be disrupted but exhibit only minor changes in their
composition (e.g. ). In turn, phenotypic and meta-
bolic changes can be observed in impacted areas, even if
the community structure (e.g. abundance, diversity) re-
mains unchanged. Behavioural, metabolic, phenotypic
and stable isotopes composition modifications in inver-
tebrates usually occur at short time scales , compared
to detectable changes in community composition (except
in the extreme case of catastrophic events such as oil
spills) and thus makes their use particularly relevant as
indicators of perturbation. Regarding for example be-
havioural analysis, they have previously been underlined
as “early warning” signals to assess the status of marine
Most of the highest predicted cumulated impacts of
humans on marine ecosystems are in areas of continental
shelf and slopes, including hard and soft continental
shelves and rocky reefs . Ecosystem modifications in
response to these changes include extinctions, changes in
food web structures and shifts in geographical distribu-
tion of species . In the latter case, intertidal organisms
are considered as being potential harbingers of climate-
driven changes in distribution patterns  because most
of them live very close to their thermal tolerance limits
[67,68]. Furthermore, intertidal areas are home to some
of the highest rates of primary production in the world
 and their status (sink/source) regarding the CO2
global cycle is still uncertain . Understanding their
role in the global carbon cycle is, however, of primary
importance since the efficiency of the global ocean car-
bon pump is expected to decrease [1,71] and about 40%
of the carbon sequestration in the oceans occur along
continental margins . Thus, intertidal areas do not
only occupy a keystone ecological position as a land/sea
and air/water interface but also represent a compartment
of primary importance to assess the impact of human
activities and global warming on marine ecosystems .
Intertidal ecology is a productive field in marine sciences,
as seen from the constant increase in published works on
the intertidal environment since the early 90’s (Figure
Note that the related growth rate (5.7%), though sig-
nificantly lower than the ones for benthic indicators and
marine sciences, corresponds to a significantly more
pronounced increase than the one observed in general
sciences. One of the main advantages of the intertidal
environment is its accessibility and the subsequent rela-
tive ease to observe the distribution and behaviour of
organisms, and to perform manipulative experiments.
This is particularly true for rocky shores that have been
extensively used to study species interactions relatively
early (60’s and 70’s), notably with the work of Connell
, Paine  and Underwood . Note that the re-
Number of records
Figure 3. Number of publications in the field of intertidal ecology (i.e. for the keywords combination “intercotidal or inter-
tidal”) recovered from the ISI Web of Knowledge database (accessed early March 2013) for the period 1924 (first reference
n the field)-2012. i
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. OJMS
vival of interest in intertidal ecology in the early 80’s
(Figure 3) matches with the first papers published on the
primary production of microphytobenthos . Ever
since, soft sediment functioning has been continuously
and increasingly studied, especially in areas where both
human uses and impacts are manifest, i.e. estuaries (mud-
flats) and sandy shores (beaches.)
In this framework, the intertidal represents an ideal
candidate for the development of new indicators and
studies concerning the impact of anthropogenic (direct
and indirect) disturbances on the functioning of intertidal
systems have been multiplying during the last decade.
Modifications in the behaviour, phenotype, metabolism
or isotopic composition of intertidal invertebrates might
be useful to detect non-natural changes in relation with
e.g. alien species introduction [77,78], topographic modi-
fications , the presence of plastic litter , metal
contamination in sediment , exposition to pesticides
[82,83], acidification [84,85] and temperature increase
[86-88]. Furthermore, tools usually used to trace organic
matter in the trophic network (i.e. stable isotopes and
fatty acids) have also been used as indicators for envi-
ronmental changes [89-91]. The monitoring of CO2
fluxes at the air/sediment interface also appears to be
particularly interesting since they are mainly dependent
on variations in light and temperature at several scales
[92,93], and have been shown to respond to direct and
indirect consequences of global change. This includes
climatic events (exceptional warm year ), micro- and
macro-algal deposits in soft sediments [94-97], canopy
loss on rocky shores , and most probably acidifica-
Potential benthic indicators are thus numerous in the
intertidal. However, the functioning of intertidal areas is
known to be particularly complex, hence the difficulties
in the estimation of the impact of climate change [66,
100]. Indeed, the interface position leads to sharp varia-
tions in the physical and chemical properties of the envi-
ronment between immersion and emersion conditions,
and the understanding of the impact of environmental
stress is made particularly difficult due to theirspatio-
temporal coincidence [101,102]. In addition, the sources
of organic matter are numerous , leading to often
challenging studies on trophic interactions and energy
flows . Therefore, a proper knowledge of the func-
tioning of the main intertidal habitats (rocky shores,
sandflats, mudflats, seagrass meadows) is required as a
prerequisite to develop a baseline, or “relative reference
state” . This would require, beside usual laboratory
experiments, long-term surveys and extensive field in-
vestigations. Long-term monitoring of CO2 exchanges
through automated measurements could be performed
using the non-invasive eddy correlation technique which
provides direct and continuous measurements of net CO2
exchange at time scales ranging from hours to years
, integrates large spatial scales, and has been proven
efficient in intertidal areas . This method represents
a promising tool for large-scale estimations of CO2
fluxes, but techniques such as benthic chambers are more
amenable for the detection of fine processes. The situa-
tion is much more complicated for long-term, spatially
extended, surveys of species distribution in relation with
e.g. microhabitats or the collection of individuals for
morphometric analysis. This kind of surveys requires
important associated manpower and financial resources.
It is nowadays recognise that projects that seek to collect
field data on large geographical areas and/or over long
time periods can only succeed with the help of ‘citizen
scientists’ [107,108]. The intertidal being easily accessi-
ble and usually frequented by tourists or recurrent users,
the help of volunteers can be relatively easily imple-
mented. For example, citizen science has previously been
successfully used to assess the presence of invasive crabs
in the intertidal zone along more than 1000 km of coast
in the USA . Though usually based on structural
factors (presence/richness of some species), citizen sci-
ence could also be powerful for functional factors with
the development of specific protocols and a minimum of
4. Conclusion: Are Science and Policy
It is suggested here that new benthic indicators are
needed and should be developed based on the function-
ing of the ecosystem rather than on community composi-
tion. In tidal seas, due to their key interface position, easy
access, and coast effectiveness compared to the subtidal
, intertidal areas offer a great opportunity to quickly
develop such indicators. The first step will be to fill po-
tential current knowledge gaps to clearly identify targets
(species behaviour, composition, fluxes) and implement
protocols that will be unambiguously understandable,
hence usable by research consultancies and citizen scien-
tists. There are, however, contradictory interests between
science and management policies . Some of the
statements advocated here are usually fiercely argued
against when discussed with colleagues involved in
management e.g. “why have benthic indicators reached a
dead end? There are many publications, some introduc-
ing new ways for indicator development”, “there are
plenty of publications showing the ability of current in-
dicators to detect pressure gradients”, “there are plenty
of papers showing that benthic indicators are indicating
effects to marine commun ities, as required by legisla-
tion”, or “legisla tion requires assessing the effects at the
community or ecosystem level and legislation deal with
managed pressure”. These quotations testify that legisla-
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. OJMS
N. SPILMONT 81
tion leads to 1) a profusion of publications related to
benthic indicators that, though probably helpful for the
bibliometric profile of some scientists, do not bring any
definitive solution (outputs vs. outcomes ), 2) ignores
the evolution of scientific knowledge that should be in-
cluded in new management directives and 3) ignores
exogenic unmanaged pressures. Elliott  recently
adressed these problems and stressed that both exogenic
unmanaged pressures and endogenic managed pressures
should both be tackled in a multidisciplinary approach,
and that the ‘health’ of the system should be considered
at six different biological levels (cell, tissue, individual,
population, community and ecosystem)···I further sug-
gest “in the intertidal”!
I am grateful to L. Barillé, J.-C. Dauvin, D. Davoult, S.
Lefebvre, L. Seuront and D.T. Welsh for their insightful
comments on my French HDR Thesis, which contained
most of the ideas that were developed in the present work.
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