onal player for the 2018 season. These players consist of players in the Super League and Premier League. A total of 108 players were selected as respondents.

3.2. Data Collection

In this study, the researcher selected the questionnaire as an appropriate instrument for collecting respondents’ data to obtain information about the style of leadership that the professional football players are interested in. In this study, the researcher chose the Leadership Scale for Sports (LSS) questionnaire (Chelladurai & Saleh, 1980) which consists of 40 Likert scaled questions to test the 5 dimensions of coach leadership style i.e. training and instruction dimensions (12 questions); democratic dimension (10 questions); autocratic dimension (6 questions); social support dimensions (6 questions) and positive feedback dimensions (6 questions).

4. Results and Discussions

Part A in the questionnaire is related to the background of respondents such as age, race and league level of respondents. Respondents are required to mark the parts that have been directed. All data on the respondents’ background are shown in Table 1.

In Table 1, respondents were divided into two groups of ages: 20 - 30 years and 31 - 40 years old. There were 67 respondents aged 20 - 30 years (67%) and 33 respondents aged 31 - 40 years (33%). In the meantime, in terms of race, 62 players (62%) are Malays, 30 players (30%) are Indian, 5 players (5%) are Chinese and 3 players (3%).

Based on the league level, 50 players (50%) are players in the Super League and 50 players (50%) from the Premier League.

Table 2 shows leadership style data favored by professional football players in Malaysia. The player prefer the democratic dimension (min = 3.94, SP = 0.65), followed by training dimension and instruction (min = 3.61, SP = 0.64), social support dimension (min = 3.53, SP = 0.90) and dimensions that are not favored are autocratic dimensions (min = 1.81, SP = 0.92).

Table 3 shows the style of leadership favored by professional football players in Malaysia based on age. (Min = 3.69, SP = 0.76), followed by training and instruction dimension (min = 3.48, SP = 0.69), social support dimension (min = 3.47, SP = 0.83), the feedback dimension (min = 3.46, SP = 0.83) and the least favored dimensions of players 20 - 30 years are autocratic dimensions (mean = 2.11, SP = 0.94). The results of the study showed that the 31-40 year players favored the democratic dimension (min = 4.12, SP = 0.47), followed by training and instruction dimensions (min = 3.70, SP = 0.59), social support dimensions (mean = 3.58, SP = 0.93), the feedback dimension (min = 3.34, SP = 0.68) and

Table 1. Background of respondents.

Table 2. Raw data of leadership styles that are interested in professional soccer players in Malaysia.

Table 3. Raw data of leadership styles that are interested in professional footballers in malaysia based on age.

the dimensions of the least favored player 31 - 40 years is the autocratic dimension (min = 1.58, SP = 0.84).

Table 4 shows leadership styles favored by professional football players in Malaysia based on race. In this study, the Malay players prefer the democratic dimension (min = 3.94, SP = 0.68), followed by training and instruction dimensions (min = 3.63, SP = 0.68), feedback dimension (min = 3.41, SP = 1.06) social (min = 3.28, SP = 0.82) and the dimensions most preferred by the Malay players are autocratic dimensions (min = 1.69, SP = 0.85). The findings of the next study show that Indian players love the dimensions of training and instruction (min = 3.88, SP = 0.61), followed by democratic dimension (min = 3.59, SP = 0.65), feedback dimension (min = 3.50, SP = 0.85) (min = 3.45, SP = 0.75) and the dimensions most liked by Indian players are autocratic dimensions (min = 1.87, SP = 0.96). Meanwhile, for the Chinese Dusun, this player (min = 4.38, SP = 0.34), followed by feedback dimension (min = 4.17, SP = 0.62), training dimension and instruction (min = 3.76, SP = 0.44), social support dimension (min = 3.48, SP = 0.38) and the dimensions most favored by Chinese players are autocratic dimensions (min = 1.55, SP = 0.55). The findings of the next study showed that players from other races also favored the democratic dimension (min = 4.03, SP = 0.97), followed by feedback dimension (min = 3.75, SP = 0.59), social support dimension (mean = 3.71, SP = 0.61), the dimensions of training and instruction (min = 3.55, SP = 0.53) and the dimensions most liked by this race are autocratic dimensions (mean = 2.65, SP = 1.68).

Table 5 shows the raw data of leadership style favored by professional football players in Malaysia based on league level. (Min = 3.65, SP = 0.71), followed by feedback dimension (min = 3.59, SP = 0.88), training dimension and instruction (min = 3.57, SP = 0.68), dimension Social support (min = 3.55, SP = 0.80) and the dimensions most preferred by Super League players are autocratic dimensions (min = 2.37, SP = 0.95). The results of the study showed that the Premier

Table 4. Raw data of leadership styles that are interested in professional footballers in Malaysia based on age.

Table 5. Raw data of leadership styles who are interested in professional soccer players in malaysia based on league level.

League players also favored the democratic dimension (min = 4.23, SP = 0.40), followed by training and instruction dimensions (min = 3.64, SP = 0.60), feedback dimensions (min = 3.47, SP = 0.93) social support (min = 3.24, SP = 0.66) and the least favored dimensions of the Premier League players are autocratic dimensions (min = 1.24, SP = 0.42).

5. Discussions

Leadership approaches give a very important role to the leader’s relationship with his followers in the leader’s efforts to control the situation in organizational goals and objectives (Fiedler, 1967) . The overall study finds that the leadership style most preferred by professional football players in Malaysia is the democratic dimension and the least disliked is the autocratic dimension.

On the aspect of comparison of the leadership style of coach who is interested in professional football players in Malaysia based on age, it is found that there is no significant difference in the style of coach leadership style that players are interested in based on age. This shows that age differences do not affect their assessment of the style of leadership professed by professional football players in Malaysia.

On the aspect of comparison of the leadership style of the coach who is interested in race based on race, it is found that there is no significant difference in the comparison of the style of coach leadership that is most interested in racial players. This shows that racial differences do not affect their assessment of the style of leadership that the professional football players in Malaysia are interested in.

For the comparison aspect of coach leadership style that players are interested in based on the league level, there is no significant difference in comparison to the style of coach leadership that players are interested in based on the league level. This shows the difference in level of league is not influencing their assessment of the style of leadership that the professional football players in Malaysia are interested in. From the research and discussion, it can be concluded that:

1) The results of this study show that the leadership style is the most desirable professional football players in Malaysia as a whole and based on age, race and league, levels are the same in democratic dimensions.

2) While the less desirable by professional football players in Malaysia is autocratic dimension.

3) Factors of age difference, race and league level indicate that it does not influence coach leadership style.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.

Cite this paper

Yusoff, M. R. F., & Muhamad, T. A. (2018). The Leadership Approaches by Football Coaches That Are Favored by the Profesional Football Players in Malaysia. Creative Education, 9, 2341-2349. https://doi.org/10.4236/ce.2018.914174

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