of the total variance, related to anions, Ca2+ and Mg2+. It could be correlated to complex processes such as weathering of fluoride bearing minerals (AlF3, CaF2, MgF2), gypsum, carbonate minerals and anthropogenic activities i.e. coal burning and leaching, aluminum plant effluents, etc. Factor-2 was accounted for 22.15% of the total variance, related to EC, TDS and Na+ which determined the mineralization of pond water. Factor-3 was accounted for 16.23% of the total variance having strong loadings of Fe and Mn, related to the speciation of Fe and Mn in the water. Factor-4 was accounted for 9.23% of the total variance, negatively loaded with the pH values. This factor was in the inverse relationship with the other factors.

3.4. Water Quality

The concentration of F, Al, Mn and Fe was found to be several folds higher than recommended value of 1.0, 0.03, 0.10 and 0.30 mg/L, respectively. The higher values of EC, TDS, RP, F, Cl, , Mg2+, Ca2+, SiO2, Al, Fe, Ni, Zn, Sb, Pb and U in the groundwater than the surface water was observed, may be due to leaching from the coal (Figure 2, Figure 3). The main sources of the contaminants in the water of the studied area expected are

(a)(b)(c)

Figure 2. Distribution of pH and elements in ground and surface water in the post monsoon period, January, 2013.

coal mine leachates and the Aluminum and Thermal power plant effluents discharged into the environment.

3.5. Exposure Assessment

The toxic elements i.e. F, Al, Mn, Fe, Cu, Cd, Pb and U are exposed to human and animals through the contaminated water. Among them, the concentration of F is dominated in ground and surface water. The stool and urine samples were reported as good indicator for the exposure assessment. In this study, the F content was analyzed in stool and urine samples of domestic animals i.e. cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat (Table 9). The F concentration in the urine and stool samples (5 × 4 × 2 = 40) was ranged from 32 - 63 mg/L and 186 - 356 mg/kg with mean value of 44 mg/L and 266 mg/kg (dried mass), respectively. The highest F concentration was observed in the goat clinical samples, which might be due to higher intake of the contaminated biomass and water (Figure 4). Several cases of fluorosis diseases in the domestic animals of the basin was observed and shown in Figure 5.

4. Conclusion

The water of the Korba basin is contaminated with elements (i.e. F, Al, Fe and Mn) by multiple sources (i.e. coal

(a)(b)(c)

Figure 3. Distribution trace elementsin ground and surface water in the post monsoon period, January, 2013.

Figure 4. Comparison of F concentration in clinical samples.

(a)(b)

Figure 5. Dental (a) and hair (b) fluorosis in buffalo.

Table 9. Concentration of F in clinical samples during January 2013.

burning, Aluminum plant effluent, mine leachate, etc.). Fluoride is enriched and several folds higher in the animal urines than recommended limit of 4 mg/L with higher prevalence of fluorosis diseases. The domestic animals are severely affected with fluorosis diseases due to higher consumption of the contaminated food and water.

Acknowledgements

We are thankful to the UGC, New Delhi for award of the Rajiv Gandhi Research Fellowship to KPR and SR.

Cite this paper

Khageshwar SinghPatel,AnkitYadav,Keshaw PrakashRajhans,ShobhanaRamteke,ReetuSharma,IrenaWysocka,IrenaJaron, (2016) Exposure of Fluoride in Coal Basin. International Journal of Clean Coal and Energy,05,1-12. doi: 10.4236/ijcce.2016.51001

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NOTES

*Corresponding author.

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