of the total variance, related to anions, Ca2+ and Mg2+. It could be correlated to complex processes such as weathering of fluoride bearing minerals (AlF3, CaF2, MgF2), gypsum, carbonate minerals and anthropogenic activities i.e. coal burning and leaching, aluminum plant effluents, etc. Factor-2 was accounted for 22.15% of the total variance, related to EC, TDS and Na+ which determined the mineralization of pond water. Factor-3 was accounted for 16.23% of the total variance having strong loadings of Fe and Mn, related to the speciation of Fe and Mn in the water. Factor-4 was accounted for 9.23% of the total variance, negatively loaded with the pH values. This factor was in the inverse relationship with the other factors.
3.4. Water Quality
The concentration of F−, Al, Mn and Fe was found to be several folds higher than recommended value of 1.0, 0.03, 0.10 and 0.30 mg/L, respectively. The higher values of EC, TDS, RP, F−, Cl−, , Mg2+, Ca2+, SiO2, Al, Fe, Ni, Zn, Sb, Pb and U in the groundwater than the surface water was observed, may be due to leaching from the coal (Figure 2, Figure 3). The main sources of the contaminants in the water of the studied area expected are
coal mine leachates and the Aluminum and Thermal power plant effluents discharged into the environment.
3.5. Exposure Assessment
The toxic elements i.e. F−, Al, Mn, Fe, Cu, Cd, Pb and U are exposed to human and animals through the contaminated water. Among them, the concentration of F− is dominated in ground and surface water. The stool and urine samples were reported as good indicator for the exposure assessment. In this study, the F− content was analyzed in stool and urine samples of domestic animals i.e. cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat (Table 9). The F− concentration in the urine and stool samples (5 × 4 × 2 = 40) was ranged from 32 - 63 mg/L and 186 - 356 mg/kg with mean value of 44 mg/L and 266 mg/kg (dried mass), respectively. The highest F− concentration was observed in the goat clinical samples, which might be due to higher intake of the contaminated biomass and water (Figure 4). Several cases of fluorosis diseases in the domestic animals of the basin was observed and shown in Figure 5.
The water of the Korba basin is contaminated with elements (i.e. F−, Al, Fe and Mn) by multiple sources (i.e. coal
Figure 3. Distribution trace elementsin ground and surface water in the post monsoon period, January, 2013.
Figure 4. Comparison of F− concentration in clinical samples.
Figure 5. Dental (a) and hair (b) fluorosis in buffalo.
Table 9. Concentration of F− in clinical samples during January 2013.
burning, Aluminum plant effluent, mine leachate, etc.). Fluoride is enriched and several folds higher in the animal urines than recommended limit of 4 mg/L with higher prevalence of fluorosis diseases. The domestic animals are severely affected with fluorosis diseases due to higher consumption of the contaminated food and water.
We are thankful to the UGC, New Delhi for award of the Rajiv Gandhi Research Fellowship to KPR and SR.
Cite this paper
Khageshwar SinghPatel,AnkitYadav,Keshaw PrakashRajhans,ShobhanaRamteke,ReetuSharma,IrenaWysocka,IrenaJaron, (2016) Exposure of Fluoride in Coal Basin. International Journal of Clean Coal and Energy,05,1-12. doi: 10.4236/ijcce.2016.51001
- 1. Finkelman, R.B. (1999) Trace Elements in Coal Environmental and Health Significance. Biological Trace Element Research, 67, 197-204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02784420
- 2. Ghosh, R., Majumder, T. and Ghosh, D.N. (1987) A Study of Trace Elements in Litho types of Some Selected Indian Coals. International Journal of Coal Geology, 8, 269-278.
- 3. Wu, D., Zheng, B., Tang, X., Li, S., Wang, B. and Wang, M. (2004) Fluorine in Chinese Coals. Fluoride, 37, 125-132.
- 4. Pandey, P.K., Pandey, M. and Chakraborty, M. (2013) Fluoride Mobilization due to Coal Mining in Parts of Chhattisgarh. Journal of Environmental Protection, 4, 385-388.
- 5. Gupta, S., Mondal, D. and Bardhan, A. (2012) Geochemical Provenance and Spatial Distribution of Fluoride in Groundwater in parts of Raniganj Coal Field, West Bengal, India. Archives of Applied Science Research, 4, 292-306.
- 6. Borah, J. (2011) Monitoring Fluoride Concentration and Some other Physico-Chemical Properties of Groundwater of Tinsukia District, Assam, India. International Journal of ChemTech Research, 3, 1339-1342.
- 7. Reza, R. and Singh, G. (2013) Groundwater Quality Status With Respect to Fluoride Contamination in Industrial Area of Angul District Orissa India. Indian Journal of Scientific Research and Technology, 1, 54-61.
- 8. Kotoky, P., Barooah, P.K., Baruah, M.K., Goswami, A., Borah, G.C., Gogoi, H.M., Ahmed, F., Gogoi, A. and Paul, A.B. (2008) Fluoride and Endemic Fluorosis in the Karbianglong District, Assam, India. Fluoride, 41, 42-45.
- 9. Pathak, R.P., Pankaj, S., Sameer, V., Mahure, N.V., Rajeev, K. and Ratnam, M. (2012) Detection of Fluoride Contamination in the Surface and Sub-Surface Water near Thermal Power Station. International Journal of Engineering and Science, 1, 44-47.
- 10. Guijian, L., Liugen, Z., Duzgoren-Aydin, N.S., Lianfen, G., Junhua, L. and Zicheng, P. (2007) Health Effects of Arsenic, Fluorine, and Selenium from Indoor Burning of Chinese Coal. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 189, 89-106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-35368-5_4
- 11. Ando, M., Tadano, M., Yamamoto, S., Tamura, K., Asanuma, S., Watanabe, T., Kondo, T., Sakurai, S., Ji, R., Liang, C., Chen, X., Hong, Z. and Cao, S. (2001) Health Effects of Fluoride Pollution caused by Coal Burning. Science of the Total Environment, 271, 107-116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0048-9697(00)00836-6
- 12. Fidanci, U.R. and Sel, T. (2001) The Industrial Fluorosis Caused by a Coal-Burning Power Station and Its Effects on Sheep. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Science, 25, 735-741.
- 13. Singaraja, C., Chidambaram, S., Anandhan, P., Prasanna, M.V., Thivya, C., Thilagavathi, R. and Sarathidasan, J. (2014) Geochemical Evaluation of Fluoride Contamination of Groundwater in the Thoothukudi District of Tamilnadu, India. Applied Water Science, 4, 241-250. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13201-014-0157-y
- 14. Singaraja, C., Chidambaram, S., Anandhan, P., Prasanna, M.V., Thivya, C. and Thilagavathi, R. (2013) A Study on the Status of Fluoride Ion in Groundwater of Coastal Hard Rock Aquifers of South India. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 6, 4167-4177. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12517-012-0675-6
- 15. Pandey, A.C., Shekhar, S. and Nathawat, M.S. (2012) Evaluation of Fluoride Contamination in Groundwater Sources in Palamu District, Jharkhand, India. Journal of Applied Sciences, 12, 882-887.
- 16. Kumar, A. and Kumar, V. (2015) Fluoride Contamination in Drinking Water and its Impact on Human Health of Kishanganj, Bihar, India. Research Journal of Chemical Sciences, 5, 76-84.
- 17. Ghosh, S., Chakraborty, S., Roy, B., Banerjee, P. and Bagchi, A. (2010) Assessment of Health Risks Associated with Fluoride-Contaminated Groundwater in Birbhum District of West Bengal, India. Journal of Environmental Protection Science, 4, 13 - 21. http://aes.asia.edu.tw/Issues/JEPS2010/GhoshS2010.pdf
- 18. Reddy, B.M., Sunitha, V. and Reddy, M.R. (2013) Fluoride and Nitrate Geochemistry of Groundwater from Kadiri, Mudigubba and Nallamada Mandals of Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh, India. Journal of Agricultural Engineering and Biotechnology, 1, 37-42. http://www.academicpub.org/DownLoadPaper.aspx?PaperID=14051
- 19. Madhavan, N. and Subramanian, V. (2001) Fluoride Concentration in River Waters of South Asia. Current Science, 80, 1312-1319. http://www.iisc.ernet.in/currsci/may252001/1312.pdf
- 20. Mamatha, S.V. and Haware, D.J. (2013) Document on Fluoride Accumulation in Ground and Surface Water of Mysore, Karnataka, India. Current World Environment, 8, 259-265.
- 21. APHA, AWWA and WEF (2005) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. 21st Edition, APHA, Washington DC, USA.
- 22. BIS (2012) Drinking Water—Specification (ICS 13.060.20) 2nd Edition, Bureau of Indian Standard, New Delhi.
- 23. WHO (2011) Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. 4th Edition World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.