_{1}

^{*}

By generalizing the isotope effect for elemental superconductors (SCs) to the case of pairing in the 2-phonon exchange mechanism for composite SCs, we give here an explanation of the well-known increase in the critical temperature (T
_{c}) of Bi
_{2}Sr
_{2}CaCu
_{2}O
_{8} from 95 K to 110 K and of Bi
_{2}Sr
_{2}Ca
_{2}Cu
_{3}O
_{10} from 105 to 115 - 125 K when Bi and Sr in these are replaced by Tl and Ba, respectively. On this basis, we also give the estimated T
_{c}s of some hypothetical SCs, assuming that they may be fabricated by substitutions similar to Bi → Tl and Sr → Ba.

In this note we deal with an explanation of why the replacements of Bi and Sr in Bi_{2}Sr_{2}CaCu_{2}O_{8} and Bi_{2}Sr_{2}Ca_{2}Cu_{3}O_{10} by Tl and Ba, respectively, lead to an increase in the critical temperature T_{c} of the former from 95 K to 110 K and of the latter from 105 to 115 - 125 K. This is an important undertaking because it has the potential to act as a general guide about substituting one or the other element in a composite superconductor (SC) in order to enhance its T_{c}.

Empirically, it has been shown [_{c} of an SC, greater is its critical current density j_{0}, for which, theoretically, an expression has been derived in terms of the following five parameters [_{g}, Fermi energy E_{F}, and a dimensionless construct _{0} the critical momentum of Cooper pairs and m* the effective mass of an electron. Therefore, if theory could predict the values of these parameters after one or more substitutions are made in an SC, then we would have a handle on its j_{0} and T_{c}. Since, as of now, theory cannot perform this task, we must resort to an approach that relies on a property or properties that can be unequivocally determined, regardless of the number of elements that are replaced by others. Such a property is the mass of the SC.

Above considerations lead us to recall the isotope effect

where M is the average mass of ions of an elemental SC. While BCS theory gives the value of α as 0.5, values significantly different from this have also been found for some elements, e.g., Mo, Os, and Ru, which are characterized by α = 0.33, 0.2, and 0, respectively. Hence, while (1) does not have the status of a law, it nonetheless helped in the formulation of BCS theory because it sheds light on the role of the ion lattice in the scenario of 1-phonon exchange mechanism (1 PEM) for pairing. Since the T_{c}s and gaps of all the SCs dealt with here have been explained in the framework of the generalized-BCS equations (GBCSEs) employing the 2-phonon exchange mechanism (2 PEM) [_{c}s of some members of the families of SCs represented by X_{2}Y_{2}CaCu_{2}O_{8} and X_{2}Y_{2}Ca_{2}Cu_{3}O_{10} for different choices of X and Y. The final Section sums up our present study.

GBCSE for the T_{c} of a composite SC in the 2 PEM scenario is [

where chemical potential μ has been used interchangeably with E_{F}, θ_{1} and θ_{2} are the Debye temperatures and λ_{1} and λ_{2} the interaction parameters of the ion-species responsible for pairing, and the operator Re ensures that the integrals yield real values even when ξ + μ < 0. When either of the λs is zero and μ >> kθ_{1} (or kθ_{2}), (2) reduces to the usual BCS equation for the T_{c} of an elemental SC in the 1 PEM scenario. Since T_{c} of an SC in the 2 PEM scenario is due to the cooperative effect of two kinds of ions, the following generalization of (1) suggests itself naturally

where p is the constant of proportionality and M_{1} and M_{2} are the masses of the ion-species that cause pairing. A discussion of (3) vis-à-vis (1) will be given below.

Pairing in this SC may be caused by the cooperative effect of one or more of the following pairs of ions: Bi and Sr, Bi and Ca, and Sr and Ca. For each of these choices, guided by the values of α noted in Section 1, we calculate the value of p corresponding to T_{c} = 95 K, and α = 0.5, 0.4, 0.3, 0.2, and 0.1. With M_{Bi} = 208.98, M_{Sr} = 87.62, and M_{Ca} = 40.08 (amu), we then obtain the results given in

We calculate T_{c} (Tl_{2}Ba_{2}CaCu_{2}O_{8}) via (3) for each of the 15 {α, p}-values in _{1}M_{2} as M_{Tl}M_{Ba}, M_{Tl}M_{Ca}, and M_{Ba}M_{Ca}. With M_{Tl} = 204.39 and M_{Ba} = 137.33 (amu), the resulting 45 values are given in

It is seen from _{c} (Bi_{2}Sr_{2}CaCu_{2}O_{8}) = 95 K in the 2PEM scenario involving predominantly the Bi and Sr ions, they lead to T_{c} (Tl_{2}Ba_{2}CaCu_{2}O_{8}) = 111.6. K when pairing is predominantly due to the Tl and Ca ions. Two other notable pairs of {α, p}-values in _{c} (Tl_{2}Ba_{2}CaCu_{2}O_{8}) as 107.8 and 107.1 K (pairing via the Ba and Ca ions in each case); both of these T_{c}s are also close to the experimental values of 110 K.

Since Bi and Tl belong to the same period and Sr and Ba to the same group of the periodic table, it seems interesting to investigate the effects of further similar substitutions in light of the above results. We assume that it is feasible to obtain the compounds noted below from the parent compound Bi_{2}Sr_{2}CaCu_{2}O_{8}.

For α = 0.2 and p = 676.6 K amu^{2α}, we obtain

1) T_{c} (Bi_{2}Mg_{2}CaCu_{2}O_{8}); via Bi + Mg) = 123 K = T_{c} (Tl_{2}Mg_{2}CaCu_{2}O_{8}); via Tl + Mg)

2) T_{c} (Bi_{2} (or Tl_{2}) Mg_{2}CaCu_{2}O_{8}); via Bi + Mg) = 171 K

α | p (Bi + Sr) (K amu^{2α}) | p (Bi + Ca) (K amu^{2α}) | p (Sr + Ca) (K amu^{2α}) |
---|---|---|---|

0.5 | 12855.2 | 8694.4 | 5629.7 |

0.4 | 4817.3 | 3523.2 | 2488.5 |

0.3 | 1805.2 | 1427.7 | 1100.0 |

0.2 | 676.5 | 578.5 | 486.2 |

0.1 | 253.5 | 234.4 | 214.9 |

α | p | T_{c} (Tl + Ba) K | T_{c} (Tl + Ca) K | T_{c} (Ba + Ca) K |
---|---|---|---|---|

0.5 | 12855.2 | 76.7 | 142.0 | 173.3 |

8694.4 | 51.9 | 96.1 | 117.2 | |

5629.7 | 33.6 | 62.2 | 75.9 | |

α = 0.4 | 4817.3 | 80.1 | 131.1 | 153.6 |

3523.2 | 58.6 | 95.8 | 112.4 | |

2488.5 | 41.4 | 67.7 | 79.4 | |

α = 0.3 | 1805.2 | 83.6 | 120.9 | 136.2 |

1427.7 | 66.1 | 95.6 | 107.8 | |

1100.0 | 50.9 | 73.7 | 83.0 | |

α = 0.2 | 676.5 | 87.2 | 111.6 | 120.8 |

578.5 | 74.6 | 95.4 | 103.3 | |

486.2 | 62.7 | 62.7 | 86.8 | |

α = 0.1 | 253.5 | 91.0 | 103.0 | 107.1 |

234.4 | 84.2 | 95.2 | 99.1 | |

214.9 | 77.2 | 87.3 | 90.8 |

3) T_{c} (Bi_{2}Be_{2}CaCu_{2}O_{8}); via Bi + Be) = 150 K = T_{c} (Tl_{2}Be_{2}CaCu_{2}O_{8}); via Tl + Be)

4) T_{c} (Bi_{2} or (Tl_{2}) Be_{2}CaCu_{2}O_{8}); via Be + Ca) = 208 K

Following the same procedure as above, we can find 15 {α, p}-values, each of them corresponding to T_{c} (Bi_{2}Sr_{2}Ca_{2}Cu_{3}O_{10}) = 105 K. Among these, the following four sets: {0.4, 3894.1; Bi + Ca}, {0.3, 1578.0; Bi + Ca}, {0.1, 280.2; Bi + Sr}, and {0.2, 747.7; Bi + Sr} also lead to T_{c} (Tl_{2}Ba_{2}Ca_{2}Cu_{3}O_{10}) in the range 115 - 125 K; the T_{c}-values corresponding to the first three due to the (Ba + Ca) ions are 124.2, 119.1, and 118.4 K, respectively, and the fourth value is 123.3 K due to the (Tl + Ca) ions.

Some typical T_{c}-values corresponding to {α, p} = {0.4, 3894.1} when Sr in Bi_{2}Sr_{2}CaCu_{3}O_{10} is replaced by Mg and Be, respectively, are 248.2 (due to Mg + Ca) and 190.8 K (due to Bi + Be).

It was noted above that BCS theory gives the value of α in (1) as 0.5. This follows from two relations: (a) _{c} is Debye frequency of the ions, N(0) the density of states at the Fermi surface, and V the net attraction between electrons bound as pairs, and (b) _{c} of a composite SC, we cannot derive for it a “blanket relation” such as α = 0.5. The value of α for such SCs is expected to differ from family-to-family and we believe to have indicated how it may be tested; besides, in the best-case scenario, it may prove to be useful in the current endeavor to reach room temperature T_{c}s.

The applicability of the isotope effect via (1) has been investigated experimentally for the high-T_{c} SC YBa_{2}Cu_{3}O_{7} by replacing up to 75% of its O-16 by O-18 [_{c}, it was concluded that α = 0 for this SC. We note in this context that scattering with the O ions is not the direct cause of pairing in any SC; what needs to be monitored is the change in T_{c} when one or more ions that are actually responsible for pairing are substituted. A remark about the vital role of CuO_{2} planes in an SC is in order since greater their number, greater is the T_{c} of the SC. We believe that the dual role of these planes is (a) to meet the stoichiometric requirements for the stability of the SC when new ion layers are added to it to provide additional channels for pairing and (b) to provide additional sites for pairs to reside on.

To conclude, by appealing to an isotope-like effect, we have given here an explanation of the known increase in the T_{c}s of Bi_{2}Sr_{2}CaCu_{2}O_{8} and Bi_{2}Sr_{2}Ca_{2}Cu_{3}O_{10} when Bi and Sr in these are replaced by Tl and Ba, respectively. Based on this approach, we have given plausible values of T_{c}s of some hypothetical SCs that may be obtained from the parent SCs by one or more substitutions. Fabrication of these hypothetical SCs, e.g., Tl_{2}Be_{2}CaCu_{2}O_{8} and ensuring that pairing in it occurs predominantly via the Be and the Ca ions (which lead to T_{c} = 208 K), is a problem that belongs to the realm of chemical engineering.

Author thanks Professor D. C Mattis for a critical reading of the manuscript and for encouragement.

Malik, G.P. (2018) On the Isotope-Like Effect for High-T_{c} Superconductors in the Scenario of 2-Phonon Exchange Mechanism for Pairing. World Journal of Condensed Matter Physics, 8, 109-114. https://doi.org/10.4236/wjcmp.2018.83007