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R. Durbin, “The 1000 Genomes Project,” Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, 2012. http://www.1000

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: The “3 Genomic Numbers” Discovery: How Our Genome Single-Stranded DNA Sequence Is “Self-Designed” as a Numerical Whole

    AUTHORS: Jean-Claude Perez

    KEYWORDS: Genetic Code; Codon Populations; Junk DNA; Cancer Genomics Chromosomal Translocations; Genomes Diversity; Chromosomes Diversity; Whole Human Genome DNA Sequence; “Phi” the Golden Ratio; Fibonacci Numbers; Information Theory; Symmetry; Cellular Automata; Chargaff’s Codon Level Symmetry Principle; Fractal Self-Similarity; “e” Euler’s Number; “Pi”; form and Substance; Redundancy; Encryption

    JOURNAL NAME: Applied Mathematics, Vol.4 No.10B, October 4, 2013

    ABSTRACT: This article proves the existence of a hyper-precise global numerical meta-architecture unifying, structuring, binding and controlling the billion triplet codons constituting the sequence of single-stranded DNA of the entire human genome. Beyond the evolution and erratic mutations like transposons within the genome, it’s as if the memory of a fossil genome with multiple symmetries persists. This recalls the “intermingling” of information characterizing the fractal universe of chaos theory. The result leads to a balanced and perfect tuning between the masses of the two strands of the huge DNA molecule that constitute our genome. We show here how codon populations forming the single-stranded DNA sequences can constitute a critical approach to the understanding of junk DNA function. Then, we suggest revisiting certain methods published in our 2009 book “Codex Biogenesis”. In fact, we demonstrate here how the universal genetic code table is a powerful analytical filter to characterize single-stranded DNA sequences constituting chromosomes and genomes. We can then show that any genomic DNA sequence is featured by three numbers, which characterize it and its 64 codon populations with correlations greater than 99%. The number “1” is common to all sequences, expressing the second law of Chargaff. The other 2 numbers are related to each specific DNA sequence case characterizing life species. For example, the entire human genome is characterized by three remarkable numbers 1, 2, and Phi = 1.618 the golden ratio. Associated with each of these three numbers, we can match three axes of symmetry, then “imagine” a kind of hyperspace formed by these codon populations. Then we revisit the value (3-Phi)/2 which is probably universal and common to both the scale of quarks and atomic levels, balancing and tuning the whole human genome codon population. Finally, we demonstrate a new kind of duality between “form and substance” overlapping the whole human genome: we will show that—simultaneously with the duality between genes and junk DNA—there is a second layer of embedded hidden structure overlapping all the DNA of the whole human genome, dividing it into a second type of duality information/redundancy involving golden ratio proportions.