Endovascular Application of Low-Energy Laser in the Treatment of Dyscirculatory Angiopathy of Alzheimer’s Type
Ivan V. Maksimovich
Alzheimer’s Disease; Dementia; Dyscirculatory Angiopathy of Alzheimer’s Type; DAAT; Hippocampus; Temporal Lobes Atrophy; Hypovascular Zone; Laser Revascularization; Brain Tissue Regeneration
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science,
ABSTRACT: Purpose: We propose an analysis of dyscirculatory angiopathy of Alzheimer’s type (DAAT) endovascular treatment method based on transcatheter revascularization and recovery of collateral and microvascular bed of the brain by means of low-energy transluminal laser irradiation as well as its comparison with traditional Alzheimer’s disease (AD) treatment methods. Methods: The research involved 81 patients aged 34 - 79 (average age 67). 46 (46.8%) patients were treated using endovascular method—Test Group. 35 (43.2%) patients were given conventional treatment—Control Group. Patients were subdivided: Group (CDR-0): 9 (11.1%), pre-clinical stage or increased AD risk; Group (CDR-1): 24 (29.6%), mild dementia and cognitive impairment; Group (CDR-2): 31 (38.3%), moderate dementia and persistent cognitive impairment; Group (CDR-3): 17 (21.0%), severe dementia and cognitive impairment. Research plan included CT or MRI with subsequent temporal lobes volume calculation, brain scintigraphy (SG), rheoencephalography (REG), and cerebral MUGA. There were indications and contraindications for treatment in Test Group. In Group CDR-0, endovascular intervention was prophylactic, against the background of increasing memory impairment; in Groups CDR-1, CDR-2, CDR-3, it was conducted in 1 to 12 years period from AD symptoms appear-ance. Conservative treatment with Memantin and Rivastigmine was carried out in Control Group. Results: In Test Group, positive outcome accompanied by prolonged dementia decline, cognitive impairment decrease, and patients’ transition to CDR group of an earlier stage, was obtained in all cases. In Control Group, patients’ temporary stabilization in their own CDR group was achieved. Conclusions: Endovascular treatment of patients with AD different stages can not only reduce DAAT phenomena but can also cause AD regression possibly accompanied by regenerative processes in the cerebral tissue. Conservative treatment only allows stabilizing the patient’s condition for a while.