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Article citations


Ioffe, S. and Szegedy, C. (2015) Batch Normalization: Accelerating Deep Network Training by Reducing Internal Covariate Shift. Proceedings of the 32nd International Conference on Machine Learning, Lille, 6-11 July 2015, 448-456.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: An Ensemble of Convolutional Neural Networks Using Wavelets for Image Classification

    AUTHORS: Travis Williams, Robert Li

    KEYWORDS: CNN, SDA, Neural Network, Deep Learning, Wavelet, Classification, Fusion, Machine Learning, Object Recognition

    JOURNAL NAME: Journal of Software Engineering and Applications, Vol.11 No.2, February 6, 2018

    ABSTRACT: Machine learning is an integral technology many people utilize in all areas of human life. It is pervasive in modern living worldwide, and has multiple usages. One application is image classification, embraced across many spheres of influence such as business, finance, medicine, etc. to enhance produces, causes, efficiency, etc. This need for more accurate, detail-oriented classification increases the need for modifications, adaptations, and innovations to Deep Learning Algorithms. This article used Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) to classify scenes in the CIFAR-10 database, and detect emotions in the KDEF database. The proposed method converted the data to the wavelet domain to attain greater accuracy and comparable efficiency to the spatial domain processing. By dividing image data into subbands, important feature learning occurred over differing low to high frequencies. The combination of the learned low and high frequency features, and processing the fused feature mapping resulted in an advance in the detection accuracy. Comparing the proposed methods to spatial domain CNN and Stacked Denoising Autoencoder (SDA), experimental findings revealed a substantial increase in accuracy.