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Cloninger, C. R. (2013). What Makes People Healthy, Happy, and Fulfilled in the Face of Current World Challenges? Mens Sana Monographs, 11, 16-24.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Dark Time Matter: Dark Character Profiles and Time Perspective

    AUTHORS: Danilo Garcia, Patricia Rosenberg, Fernando Renee González Moraga, Max Rapp-Ricciardi

    KEYWORDS: Character, Dark Cube, Dark Triad, Machiavellianism, Narcissism, Psychopathy, Time Perspective, Unification vs. Uniqueness Debate

    JOURNAL NAME: Psychology, Vol.9 No.1, January 12, 2018

    ABSTRACT: Background: Humans seem to have a unique ability to consciously organize the flow of time (i.e., past, present, and future) and to intentionally choose goals and values (i.e., character: self, others, the universe). These two parts of human awareness have implications for individuals’ relation to a society that will flourish or perish. In fact, a balanced time perspective is suggested as necessary for the experience of well-being and optimal societal functioning. Nevertheless, low character development might be expressed as a Dark Triad: Machiavellianism, narcissism, and psychopathy. In the present study, we aimed to investigate if individuals differ in their outlook on time depending on their dark character profiles. Method: We re-analyzed data from a previous study in which participants (N = 338) responded to the Short Dark Triad Inventory and the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. However, here we use the Dark Cube (Garcia, 2017a), a model of malevolent character based on Cloninger’s biopsychosocial theory of personality and in the assumption of a Dark Triad, thus, clustering individuals in eight profiles (i.e., the combination of high/low in three malevolent character traits). Results: The results for each trait suggest multi-finality (i.e., same antecedents, different outcomes) and equifinality (i.e., different antecedents, same outcomes). For example, individuals high in narcissism presented a balanced time perspective when manipulative behavior was also high and psychopathy was low. Conclusions: In certain conditions, malevolent character is associated to a balanced time perspective. Thus, suggesting that in order to understand well-being and optimal societal functioning, we need to look at human awareness in relation to both time (i.e., past, present, future) and space (i.e., character: self, others, the universe).