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Falconer, M.A. and Weddell, G. (1943) Costoclavicular Compression of the Subclavian Artery and Vein. Lancet, 2, 539-543.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: The Prevalence and Characteristics of Thoracic Outlet Syndrome in High School Baseball Players

    AUTHORS: Kenichi Otoshi, Shinichi Kikuchi, Kinshi Kato, Ryohei Sato, Takahiro Igari, Takahiro Kaga, Hiroaki Shishido, Shinichi Konno, Ryuji Koga, Kozo Furushima, Yoshiyasu Itoh

    KEYWORDS: Thoracic Outlet Syndrome, Baseball Players, Prevalence

    JOURNAL NAME: Health, Vol.9 No.8, August 25, 2017

    ABSTRACT: Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is one of the common neurovascular disorders of the upper extremities, and the compression or traction of the brachial plexus is the main pathology. We hypothesized that baseball players are more likely to be affected by TOS compared with other overhead-throwing athletes because of strenuous use of their throwing arm. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of TOS in high school baseball players. One thousand two hundred eighty-eight high school baseball players were included in this study. The prevalence of symptomatic TOS and its association to disorders of the upper extremities were investigated. The prevalence of symptomatic TOS was 32.8%. Age- and position-adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that subjects with symptomatic TOS were at significantly higher risk of shoulder and/or elbow pain (odds ratio [OR]: 1.96, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.50 - 2.58) and a higher recurrence rate of shoulder and/or elbow pain during the previous season (OR: 2.38, 95% CI: 1.87 - 3.04). As for physical findings, subjects with symptomatic TOS were also at significantly higher risk of MUCL tenderness (OR: 2.53, 95% CI: 1.83 - 3.50), positive milking maneuver, (OR: 2.63, 95% CI: 1.78 - 3.91), positive subacromial impingement sign (OR: 1.92, 95% CI: 1.20 - 3.07), and positive posterior impingement sign (OR: 2.34, 95% CI: 1.67 - 3.28) compared to the subjects without symptomatic TOS. It is necessary to recognize that TOS is not a rare pathology in overhead-throwing athletes, especially baseball players, and that players with symptomatic TOS are at significantly higher risk of shoulder/elbow pain.