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Article citations


Corda, C., et al. (2011) Irreversible Gravitational Collapse: Black Stars or Black Holes?

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: The Creation of Neutron Stars and Black Stars and How the Chandrasekhar Limit Prevents the Creation of Intermediate Black Stars

    AUTHORS: David P. Clark

    KEYWORDS: Black Holes, White Dwarf, Chandrasekhar, Chandra, Excel

    JOURNAL NAME: Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology, Vol.3 No.3, July 28, 2017

    ABSTRACT: Using a program written in Excel, it was found that a supernova remnant, with a mass between 1.44 and 2 solar masses, contracts down to a neutron star. During the collapse, the decreasing gravitational potential slows time. Here, the pressure becomes high enough to stop the contraction. At greater than 2.2 solar masses, while the remnant is still contracting, the gravitational potential causes time to relatively freeze at the center, and stop the contraction before the pressure gets high enough to stop it, as it did in a neutron star. This also freezes the flow of information concerning the decrease in gravitational potential, thus, the frozen portions remain frozen and do not contract down any further and become imaginary. On top of this frozen center, additional matter physically and relatively contracts and the radius of the freeze point moves out. If the freeze made its way to the surface, it would meet the condition of a black hole, having a Schwarzschild radius; but it does not quite get there. The surface is not quite frozen. Even though these “almost black holes” do not have an event horizon, they are almost as small as that described by the Schwarzschild radius and due to the gravitational red shift, are very hard to see. A black star has been created. A contracting white dwarf at the Chandrasekhar limit (1.44 solar masses) has a density of about 1 × 109 kg/m3. After it cools and then collapses into a neutron star, it will have a minimum density of 3.5 × 1015 kg/m3 near the surface. This article explains how these two densities relate to why there are no supernova created stellar black stars above 15 solar masses and why super massive black stars start at 50,000 solar masses? Extracting limits like these cannot be accomplished using the standard black hole model, but this black star model has revealed these size limits and a lot more.