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Fredrickson, B. L., Tugade, M. M., Waugh, C. E., & Larkin, G. R. (2003). What Good Are Positive Emotions in Crisis? A Prospective Study of Resilience and Emotions Following the Terrorist Attacks on the United States on September 11th, 2001. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 365-376.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.84.2.365

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Reliability and Validity of the Modified Differential Emotions Scale (mDES) in a Greek Sample

    AUTHORS: Michael Galanakis, Anastasios Stalikas, Christos Pezirkianidis, Irene Karakasidou

    KEYWORDS: Positive Psychology, mDES, Positive Emotions, Greek Validation, Reliability, Validity

    JOURNAL NAME: Psychology, Vol.7 No.1, January 25, 2016

    ABSTRACT: Positive psychology focuses on the beneficial effects of positive variables in human health. Research on positive emotions has increased vastly over the last years due to the role that these variables play on psychological health. In order to cope with the increasing need for positive emotions measurement, Izard’s (1977) Differential Emotions Scale (DES) was modified by Fredrickson so as to include a far wider set of positive emotions and to assist scientific research. The present study examines the psychometric qualities of the mDES in a sample of 11,422 Greek adults aging from 18 to 83 years old. Results showed satisfactory reliability levels on both subscales of the test. Factor analysis revealed a three-component solution in contrast to the two-component solution as proposed by the original standardization study. The difference in the factorial structure does not inhibit positive and negative emotions subscale scoring and may be attributed to cultural elements in the Greek population. Further implications are discussed.