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Thigpen, K., et al. (2008) Implementation of the 2005 Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Guidelines and Use of an Impedance Threshold Device Improve Survival from Inhospital Cardiac Arrest. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 51, 475.

has been cited by the following article:

  • TITLE: Effect of Airway Management and Impedance Threshold Device on Circulation, Survival and Neurological Outcome in Adult Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest

    AUTHORS: David Chase, Angelo Salvucci, Rafael Marino, Robin Shedlosky, Nancy Merman, Katy Hadduck

    KEYWORDS: Airway Management; Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest; Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation; Endotracheal Intubation; Supraglottic Airways; Emergency Medical Services

    JOURNAL NAME: Open Journal of Emergency Medicine, Vol.2 No.1, March 31, 2014

    ABSTRACT: Purpose: This study was designed to study the effect of early use of the King Airway (KA) and impedance threshold device (ITD) in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest on ETCO2 as a surrogate measure of circulation, survival, and cerebral performance category (CPC) scores. After analysis of the first 9 month active period the KA was relegated to rescue airway status. Methods: This was a prospective pre-post study design. Patients >18 years with out-of-hospital cardiac caused arrest were included. Three periods were compared. In the first “non active” period conventional AHA 30/2 compression/ventilation ratio CPR was done with bag mask ventilation (BMV). No ITD was used. After advanced airway placement the compression/ventilation ratio was 10/1. In the second period continuous compressions were done. Primary airway management was a KA with an ITD. After placement of the KA the compression/ventilation ratio was 10/1. In the third period CPR reverted to 30/2 ratio with a two hand seal BMV with ITD. CPR ratio was 10/1 post endotracheal intubation (ETI) or KA. The KA was only recommended for failed BMV and ETI. Results: Survival to hospital discharge was similar in all three study periods. In Period 2 there was a strong trend to CPC scores >2. The study group hypothesized that the KA interfered with cerebral blood flow. For that reason the KA was abandoned as a primary airway. Comparing Period 1 to Period 3 there was a trend to improved survival in the bystander witnessed shockable rhythm (Utstein) subgroup, particularly if a metronome was used. ETCO2 was significantly increased in Period 2 and trended up in Period 3 when compared to Period 1. Advanced airway intervention had a highly significant negative association with survival. Conclusion: The introduction of an ITD into our system did not result in a statistically significant improvement in survival. The study groups were somewhat dissimilar. ETCO2 trended up. When comparing Period 1 to Period 3, the bundle of care was associated with a trend towards increased survival in the Utstein subgroup, particularly with a metronome set at 100. Multiple confounders make a definitive conclusion impossible. Advanced airways showed a significant association with poor survival outcomes. The KA was additionally associated with poor neurologic outcomes.