Concentration of Fluoride and Arsenic in Bottled Drinking Water in Durango City, Mexico
María Adriana Martínez-Prado, María Elena Pérez-López, María Guadalupe Vicencio-de la Rosa, Cecilia Corazón González-Nevarez
Arsenic; Bottled Water Quality; Fluoride; Guadiana Valley Aquifer; Groundwater
Journal of Environmental Protection,
Arsenic and fluoride are elements known to cause human health problems and it has been documented that both elements are found in high concentrations in the Guadiana Valley aquifer, in the state of Durango, Mexico. Since underground water is the source for potable water bottling companies commercialized in Durango City; such high concentrations reduced the quality of bottled water for human consumption according to NOM-041-SSA1-1993. Legislation establishes a maximum permissible limit (MPL) of 0.7 mg/L for fluoride and 0.025 mg/L for arsenic. In this research the main objective was to evaluate the quality of bottled water expended in Durango City with respect to the well from which water is extracted. Findings showed that the highest fluoride concentration was 5.86 mg/L (8.4 times MPL), with 100% of sampled brands exceeding the MPL (range: 1.09 to 5.86 mg/L). On the other hand, for arsenic, the highest concentration was 0.076 mg/L (threefold), with 38% exceeding the MPL (range: 0.001 to 0.076 ppm). Statistical analysis showed significant differences only for fluoride, according to Fisher LSD (Least Significant Difference) test, with an F value of 14.5 at a p value of 0.0005. According to the comparison between the quantified concentrations in bottled water and groundwater, it was found that groundwater was subjected to treatment; however, although a significant decrease in fluoride and arsenic concentration was observed, the removal processes used were not efficient to meet set standards.