Share This Article:

Determinants and Prevalence of Rural Poverty in West, East and Southern African Countries

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:1299KB) PP. 308-323
DOI: 10.4236/me.2011.23034    5,037 Downloads   8,999 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we determine the extent to which the variation in poverty incidence can be explained by institutional/community factors, and how the results can be used to evaluate the potential impact on poverty levels of change in factors found to have a significant influence on poverty incidence in some selected countries of East, Southern and West Africa. At the country level, the set of important variables is diverse and includes access to infrastructure (institutional dummy variables), and village resources endowment (community-based variables). The findings derived from this paper suggest that more than Four-fifths of households in the study area need to be escaped from poverty. We also found that the poverty rate could be lowered by 17% to 89% in the involved countries through investment/actions leading to access to input and output markets, awareness and adoption of improved crop varieties and best-bet practices, better access to rural credit and capacity building of community-based organizations. This indicates that these variables can have powerful effects in terms of long-term poverty reduction strategies.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

J. Binam, J. Oduol, L. Olarinde, A. Diagne and A. Adekunle, "Determinants and Prevalence of Rural Poverty in West, East and Southern African Countries," Modern Economy, Vol. 2 No. 3, 2011, pp. 308-323. doi: 10.4236/me.2011.23034.

References

[1] J. D. Sachs, “The End of Poverty,” Penguin, New York, 2005.
[2] Chronic Poverty Research Centre, “The Chronic Poverty Report, 2004-05,” University of Manchester, Manchester, 2006.
[3] R.W. Kates and P. Dasgupta, “African Poverty: A Grand Challenge for Sustainability Science,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Vol. 104, No. 43, 2007, pp. 16747-16750. doi:10.1073/pnas.0708566104
[4] P. D. Little, J. Mcpeak, C. B. Barret and P. Kristjanson, “Challenging Orthodoxies: Understanding Poverty in Pa- storal Areas of East Africa,” Development and Change, Vol. 39, No. 4, 2006, pp. 587-611. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7660.2008.00497.x
[5] World Bank, “Country Reports on Health, Nutrition, Population and Poverty,” 2000. http://www.worldbank.org/poverty/health/data/intro.htm
[6] A. Geda, S. K. Mwangi, D. J. Niek and G. Mwabu, “Determinants of Poverty in Kenya: A Household Level Ana- lysis,” Department of Economics Working Papers, University of Connecticut, 2005.
[7] P. O. Okwi, G. Ndenge, G. Kristjansonx, M. Arunga, A. Notenbaert, A. Amolo, N. Henninger, B. Todd, P. Kariuki and J. Owuol, “Spatial Determinants of Poverty in Rural Kenya,” Proceedings of the National Academic of Sciences, Vol. 104, No. 43, 2007, pp. 16769-16774. doi:10.1073/pnas.0611107104
[8] F. N. Okurut, J. J. A. O. Odwee and A. Adebwa, “Determinants of Regional Poverty in Uganda,” AERC Research Paper 122, African Economic Research Consortium, Narobi, 2002.
[9] R. Chambers, “Rural Development: Putting the Last First,” Prentice Hall, Bergen, 1983.
[10] H. Colombe and A. Mckay, “Modeling Determinants of Poverty in Mauritania,” World Development, Vol. 24, No. 6, 1996, pp. 1015-1031. doi:10.1016/0305-750X(96)00017-4
[11] S. Dercon, “Poverty Measurement,” In: D. A. Clark, Eds., The Elgar Companion to Development Studies, Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, 2005.
[12] D. Filmer and L. Pritchett, “Estimating Wealth Effects without Expenditure Data or Tears: An Application to Educational Enrollments in States of India,” World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 1994, Washington, 1998.
[13] D. E. Sahn and D. C. Stifel, “Poverty Comparisons over Time and across Countries in Africa,” World Development, Vol. 28, No. 12, 2000, pp. 2123-2155. doi:10.1016/S0305-750X(00)00075-9
[14] J. Y. Ducclos and A. Araar, “Poverty and Equity, Measurement, Policy and Estimation with DAD,” University of Laval, Quebec, 2005.
[15] M. Ayadi, E. L.AbdelRahmen and N. Chtioui, “Poverty in Tunisia: A Non-Monetary Approach,” PMMA Working Paper 2007-05, Poverty and Economic Policy Research Network, 2008.
[16] J. Galdo, M. Jaramillo and V. Montalva, “Household Wealth and Heterogeneous Impacts of a Market-Based Training Program: The Case of PROJOVEN in Peru,” PMMA Working Paper 2008-02, Poverty and Economic Policy Research Network, 2008.
[17] F. Booysen, R. Burger, G. du Rand, M. von Maltitz and S. van der Berg, “Trends in Poverty and Inequality in Seven African Countries,” PMMA Working Paper 2007-06, Poverty and Economic Policy Research Network, 2007.
[18] M. Ayadi, M. Salah and M. P. Victoria-Feser, “Putting Robust Statistical Methods into Practice: Poverty Analysis in Tunisia,” Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 137, No. 3, 2001, pp. 463-482.
[19] L. M. Asselin, “Multidimentional Poverty: Composite Indicator of Multidimentional Poverty,” Institut de Ma- thematique Gauss: Levis, Quebec, 2002.
[20] J. E. Foster, J. Greer and E. Thorbecke, “A Class of Decomposable Poverty Measures,” Econometrica, Vol. 52, No. 3, 1984, pp. 761-776. doi:10.2307/1913475
[21] G. S. Maddala, “Limited Dependent and Qualitative Variables in Econometrics,” Cambridge University Press, 1983.
[22] T. Amemiya, “Qualitative Response Models: A Survey,” Journal of Economic Literature, Vol. 19, No. 4, 1981, pp. 1483-1536.
[23] X. Wang, S. Yao, J. Liu, X. Xin, X. Liu and W. Ren, “Measuring Rural Poverty in China: A Case Study Approach,” PMMA Working Paper 2007-27, Poverty and Economic Policy Research Network, 2007.
[24] F. Sonja and W. Lindsay, “Determinants of Poverty in Sierra Leone,” ESAU Working Paper 19, Oversea Development Institute, London, 2007.
[25] P. Lanjouw and M. Ravallion, “Poverty and Household size,” The Economic Journal, Vol. 105, No. 433, 1995, pp. 1415-1434. doi:10.2307/2235108
[26] S. Mukherjee and B. Todd, “Determinants of Poverty in Malawi,” World Development, Vol. 31, No. 2, 2003, pp. 339-358. doi:10.1016/S0305-750X(02)00191-2
[27] K. Simler, S. Mukherjee, G. Dava and G. Datt, “Rebuilding after War: Micro-Level Determinants of Poverty Reduction in Mozambique,” IFPRI Working Paper Series 132, Washington, 2004.
[28] P. Glewwe, “Investing Determinants of Household Welfare in Cote d’Ivoire,” Journal of Development Economics, Vol. 35, No. 2, 1991, pp. 307-337. doi:10.1016/0304-3878(91)90053-X
[29] T. Bruck, “Determinants of Rural Poverty in Post-War Mozambique: Evidence from a Household Survey and Implications for Government and Donor Policy,” Queen Elisabeth House Working Paper Series No. 67, Oxford University, Oxford, 2001.
[30] C. Grootaert, O. Gi-Taik and A. Swamy, “Social Capital, Household Welfare and Poverty in Burkina Faso,” Journal of African Economies, Vol. 86, No. 2, 2002, pp. 15-19.
[31] H. P. Binswanger and J. von Braun, “Technological Changes and Commercialization in Agriculture: The Effect on the Poor,” World Bank research Observer, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1991, pp. 57-80. doi:10.1093/wbro/6.1.57
[32] M. R. Bellon, M. Adato, J. Bercerril and D. Mindek, “Poor Farmers’ Perceived Benefits from Different Types of Maize Germplasm: The Case of Creolization in Low Land Tropical Mexico,” World Development, Vol. 34, No. 1, 2006, pp. 113-129. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2005.05.012
[33] K. Yoko, O. Keijiro and D. Sserunkuuma, “Assessing the Impact of NERICA on Income and Poverty in Central and Western Uganda,” Agricultural Economics, Vol. 38, No. 3, 2008, pp. 327-337. doi:10.1111/j.1574-0862.2008.00303.x
[34] J. Bercerril and A. Abdulai, “The Impact of Improved Maize Varieties on Poverty in Mexico: A Propensity Score-Matching Approach,” World Development, Vol. 38, No. 7, 2010, pp. 1012-1023.
[35] A. de Janvry and E. Sadouley, “World Poverty and the Role of Agricultural Technology: Direct and Indirect Effect,” Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 38, No. 4, 2001, pp. 1-26. doi:10.1080/00220380412331322401

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.