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Secretory Structures in Flourensia campestris and F. oolepis: Ultrastructure, Distribution, and (-)-Hamanasic Acid A Secretion

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DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2015.67100    3,954 Downloads   4,617 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

In this work, the localization, density, morphology and ultrastructure of secretory structures in aerial organs of Flourensia campestris (FC) and F. oolepis (FO) (Asteraceae) by means of a combination of light, fluorescence, transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were examined. The possible role of secretory structures in the production and secretion of the phytotoxic sesquiterpene (-)-hamanasic acid A ((-)HAA) in both species was also assessed. Capitate glandular trichomes were found in all reproductive organs of FC and FO, and were being reported for the first time. These glandular trichomes, typically associated to edges and veins, were of the same type as those already described for vegetative organs, and were abundant in involucral bracts and corolla of tubulose and ligulate flowers. Their density in reproductive organs of both species was similar (ca. 30/mm2) and lower than that found in leaves (ca. 100/mm2) and stems (ca. 160/mm2 in FC, and up to 650/mm2 in FO). Glandular trichomes in vegetative organs followed a species-specific pattern of distribution. TEM and SEM observations suggest that each species differs in the way in which secretory materials are released to the outside: through cracks or pores in FC, or through a loose cuticle in FO. Similar inspections of the secretory ducts revealed lipophilic vacuoles localized in subepithelial and epithelial cells, in which secretions accumulated before being transferred to the duct. The presence of wall ingrowths in subepithelial cells suggests that granulocrine secretion operates in these species. Secretory ducts varied in density and diameter among the organs in both species, with the combination being maximal in woody stems. (-)HAA was only detected in surface secreted resins of both species, and its concentration (2D-TLC, GC-FID) was intimately associated with the distribution and density of glandular trichomes in each organ (capitula, leaves, and stems with primary or secondary growth). In addition, no (-)HAA was detected internally in the resins collected from secretory ducts. The composition of these resins showed distinctive profiles for FC and FO, and only four from ca. 30 compounds detected (GC/MS) were shared by both species. In addition to the elucidation of ultrastructural traits, distribution and density of secretory structures in aerial organs of FC and FO, present findings suggest a functional role for glandular trichomes in the secretion of the putative phytotoxic allelochemical (-)HAA.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Silva, M. , Tourn, G. , López, D. , Galati, B. , Piazza, L. , Zarlavsky, G. , Cantero, J. and Scopel, A. (2015) Secretory Structures in Flourensia campestris and F. oolepis: Ultrastructure, Distribution, and (-)-Hamanasic Acid A Secretion. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 6, 925-942. doi: 10.4236/ajps.2015.67100.

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