Share This Article:

Study the Removal of Fluoride from Aqueous Medium by Using Nano-Composites

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:1093KB) PP. 38-52
DOI: 10.4236/jeas.2015.51004    5,210 Downloads   6,743 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Endemic fluorosis disease has become a major geo-environmental health care issue caused by fluoride ion. High-efficiency and low-cost materials to uptake fluoride from water have been a chal-lenge for scientists and engineers. Here, we report a low-cost process by utilising low-cost starting materials to develop nanocomposite adsorbents for fluoride uptake from water. Bermuda grass as a starting source material converted into nanocomposite carbon fibers upon heat treatment at 800°C for one hour in Nitrogen atmosphere in the presence of metal oxides. Iron oxide-based nanocomposite (IBNC) is performing high (≈97%) removal of fluoride ion at a contact time of 60 minutes (pH 4) followed by titania-based nanocomposite (TBNC) (≈92%) and micro carbon fiber (≈88%) respectively. The phenomenon of fluoride ion uptake is realised by Freundlich adsorption model, and both adsorption capacity and adsorption intensity for IBNC are higher than those for TBNC and micro carbon fiber.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Rout, T. , Verma, R. , Dennis, R. and Banerjee, S. (2015) Study the Removal of Fluoride from Aqueous Medium by Using Nano-Composites. Journal of Encapsulation and Adsorption Sciences, 5, 38-52. doi: 10.4236/jeas.2015.51004.

References

[1] Reddy, D.R. (2009) Neurology of Endemic Skeletal Fluorosis. Neurology India, 57, 7-12.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0028-3886.48793
[2] Jolly, S.S., Singh, I.D., Prasad, S., Sharma, R., Singh, B.M. and Mathur, O.C. (1969) An Epidemiological Study of Endemic Fluorosis in Punjab. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 57, 1333-1346.
[3] Saravanan, S., Kalyani, C., Vijayarani, M., Jayakodi, P., Felix, A., Nagarajan, S., Arunmozhi, P. and Krishnan, V. (2008) Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis among Primary Schoolchildren in Rural Areas of Chidambaram Taluk, Cuddalore District, Tamil Nadu. India. Indian Journal of Community Medicine, 33, 146-150.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0970-0218.42047
[4] Shortt, H.E., Pandit, C.G. and Raghvachari, T.N.S. (1937) Endemic Fluorosis in Nellore District of South India. Indian Medical Gazettiar, 72, 396-400.
[5] Susheela, A.K. (2001) Fluorosis: Indian Scienario: A Treatiseon Fluorosis. Fluorosis Research and Rural Development Foundation, New Delhi.
[6] WHO (2004) Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality. World Health Organization, Geneva.
[7] Venkobachar, C., Iyengar, L. and Mudgal, A. (1997) Household Defluoridation of Drinking Water Using Activated Alumina Technology. Dahi, E. and Nielsen, J.M., Eds., Proceedings of the 2nd International Workshop on Fluorosis and Defluoridation of Water, Addis Ababa, 19-22 November 1997, International Society for Fluoride Research, Dunedin.
[8] Andezhath, S.K. and Ghosh, G. (2000) Fluorosis Management in India: The Impact Due to Networking between Health and Rural Drinking Water Supply Agencies. IAHS AISH Publication, 260, 159-165.
[9] USEPA 440/1-74-024-a (1974) Development Document for Effluent Limitations Guidelines and New Source Performance Standards for the Steel Making Segment of the Iron and Steel Manufacturing Point Source Category.
[10] USEPA 440/1-75/040 (1975) Development Document for Interim Final Effluent Limitation Guidelines and Proposed New Source Performance Standards for the Common and Precious Metals Segment of the Electroplating Point Source Category.
[11] USEPA 440/1-75/034-a, Group l, Phasell (1975) Development Document for Effluent Limitations Guidelines and New Source Performance Standards for the Pressed and Blown Glass Segment of the Glass Manufacturing Point Source Category. Washington DC.
[12] UNICEF’s Position on Water Fluoridation (2005) Fluoride in Water: An Overview.
http://www.nofluoride.com/Unicef_fluor.cfm
[13] Agarwal, V., Vaish, A.K. and Vaish, P. (1997) Groundwater Quality: Focus on Fluoride and Fluorosis in Rajasthan. Current Science, 73, 743-746.
[14] Passmore, R., Nicol, B.M., Rao, M.N., Beaton, G.H. and Demayer, E.M. (1974) Handbook on Human Nutritional Requirements. World Health Organization Monograph Series, No. 61, Geneva, 1-66.
[15] Teotia, S.P. and Teotia, M. (1984) Endemic Fluorosis in India: A Challenging National Health Problem. Journal of the Association of Physicians of India, 32, 347-352.
[16] Rajiv Gandhi National Drinking Water Mission (1993) Prevention and Control of Fluorosis in India. Ministry of Rural Development, New Delhi.
[17] Kotecha, P.V., Patel, S.V., Bhalani, K.D., Shah, D., Shah, V.S. and Mehta, K.G. (2012) Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis & Dental Caries in Association with High Levels of Drinking Water Fluoride Content in a District of Gujarat, India. Development Foundation, New Delhi. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 135, 873-877.
[18] Yadav, S., Khan, T.I., Gupta, S., Gupta, A.B. and Yadava, R.N. (1999) Fluorosis in India with Special Reference to Rajasthan. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Water, Environment, Ecology, Socioeconomics and Health Engineering (WEESHE), Seoul National University, Seoul, 3-10.
[19] Monroy, S.D. (2011) Fluoride Properties, Applications and Environmental Management, 111-136.
[20] Chauhan, D., Chauhan, T., Sachdev, V. and Kirtaniya, B.C. (2012) A Study of Prevalence and Severity of Dental Fluorosis among School Children in a Northern Hilly State of India. SRM Journal of Research in Dental Sciences, 3, 170-174.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0976-433X.107395
[21] Grimaldo, M., Turrubiartes, F., Milan, J., Pozos, A., Alfaro, C. and Diaz-Barriga, F. (1997) Endemic Fluorosis in San Luis Potosi, Mexico. Fluoride, 30, 33-40.
[22] Brudevold, F. and Soremark, R. (1967) Structural and Chemical Organization of Teeth, Vol. 2. Miles, A.G.W., Ed., Academic Press, New York and London, 247.
[23] Bansiwal, A., Pillewan, P., Biniwale, R.B. and Rayalu, S.S. (2010) Copper Oxide Incorporated Mesoporous Alumina for Defluoridation of Drinking Water. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 129, 54-61.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micromeso.2009.08.032
[24] Bhaumika, M., Leswifia, T.Y., Maity, A., Srinivasu, V.V. and Onyango, M.S. (2011) Removal of Fluoride from Aqueous Solution by Polypyrrole/Fe3O4 Magnetic Nanocomposite. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 186, 150-159.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.10.098
[25] Bia, G., Pauli, C.P.D. and Borgnino, L. (2012) The Role of Fe(III) Modified Montmorillonite on Fluoride Mobility: Adsorption Experiments and Competition with Phosphate. Journal of Environmental Management, 100, 1-9.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.01.019
[26] Chen, N., Zhang, Z., Feng, C., Li, M., Zhu, D. and Sugiura, N. (2011) Studies on Fluoride Adsorption of Iron-Impregnated Granular Ceramics from Aqueous Solution. Materials Chemistry and Physics, 125, 293-298.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.matchemphys.2010.09.037
[27] Das, N., Pattanaik, P. and Das, R. (2005) Defluoridation of Drinking Water Using Activated Titanium Rich Bauxite. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 292, 1-10.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2005.06.045
[28] Li, Y.H., Wang, S., Cao, A., Zhao, D., Zhang, X., Xu, C., Luan, Z., Ruan, D., Liang, J., Wu, D. and Wei, B. (2001) Adsorption of Fluoride from Water by Amorphous Alumina Supported on Carbon Nanotubes. Chemical Physics Letters, 350, 412-416.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0009-2614(01)01351-3
[29] Yan, X.R., Song, K.X., Wang, J.P., Hu, L.C. and Yang, Z.H. (1998) Preparation of CeO2-TiO2/SiO2 and Its Removal Properties for Fluoride Ions. Journal of Rare Earths, 16, 279-280.
[30] Cui, H., Qian, Y., An, H., Sun, C., Zhai, J. and Li, Q. (2012) Electrochemical Removal of Fluoride from Water by PAOA Modified Carbon Felt Electrodes in a Continuous Flow Reactor. Water Research, 46, 3943-3950.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2012.04.039
[31] Puri, B.K. and Balani, S. (2000) Trace Determination of Fluoride Using Lanthanum Hydroxide Supported on Alumina. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A, 35, 109-121.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10934520009376957
[32] Ansari, M., Kazemipour, M., Dehghani, M. and Kazemipour, M. (2011) The Defluoridation of Drinking Water Using Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes. Journal of Fluorine Chemistry, 132, 516-520.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfluchem.2011.05.008
[33] Swain, S.K., Patnaik, T., Singh, V.K., Jha, U., Patel, R.K. and Dey, R.K. (2011) Kinetics, Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Aspects of Removal of Fluoride from Drinking Water Using Meso-Structured Zirconium Phosphate. Chemical Engineering Journal, 171, 1218-1226.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2011.05.030
[34] Cherry, J.M. (1970) Fluoride Recovery in Phosphate Manufacture. Water and Waste Engineering, 7, D5.
[35] Mohapatra, M., Hariprasad, D., Mohapatra, L., Anand, S. and Mishra, B.K. (2012) Mg-Doped Nano Ferrihydrite—A New Adsorbent for Fluoride Removal from Aqueous Solutions. Applied Surface Science, 258, 4228-4236.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2011.12.047
[36] Guo, Q. and Reardon, E.J. (2012) Fluoride Removal from Water by Meixnerite and Its Calcination Product. Applied Clay Science, 56, 7-15.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2011.11.013
[37] Ma, W., Ya, F., Wang, R. and Zhao, Y.Q. (2008) Fluoride Removal from Drinking Water by Adsorption Using Bone Char as a Biosorbent. International Journal of Environmental Technology and Management, 9, 59-69.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1504/IJETM.2008.017860
[38] Dey, S., Swarup, D., Saxena, A. and Dan, A. (2011) In Vivo Efficacy of Tamarind (Tamarinds indica) Fruit Extract on Experimental Fluoride Exposure in Rats. Research in Veterinary Science, 91, 422-425.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2010.09.013
[39] Mandal, S. and Mayadevi, S. (2009) Defluoridation of Water Using as-Synthesized Zn/Al/Cl Anionic Clay Adsorbent: Equilibrium and Regeneration Studies. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 167, 873-878.
[40] Kumar, N.P., Kumar, N.S. and Krishnaiah, A. (2011) Defluoridation of Water Using Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) Fruit Cover: Kinetics and Equilibrium Studies. Journal of the Chilean Chemical Society, 57, 1224-1231.
[41] Mohan, X.D.D., Pittman Jr., C.U. and Yang, S. (2012) Remediating Fluoride from Water Using Hydrous Zirconium Oxide. Chemical Engineering Journal, 198-199, 236-245.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2012.05.084
[42] Poursaberi, T., Hassanisadi, M., Torkestani, K. and Zare, M. (2012) Development of Zirconium (IV)-Metalloporphyrin Grafted Fe3O4 Nanoparticles for Efficient Fluoride Removal. Chemical Engineering Journal, 189-190, 117-125.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2012.02.039
[43] Ramanjaneyulu, V., Jaipal, M., Yasovardhan, N. and Sharada, S. (2013) Kinetic Studies on Removal of Fluoride from Drinking Water by Using Tamarind Shell and Pipal Leaf Powder. International Journal of Emerging Trends in Engineering and Development, 5, 146.
[44] Tripathy, S.S., Bersillon, J.L. and Gopal, K. (2006) Removal of Fluoride from Drinking Water by Adsorption onto Alum-Impregnated Activated Alumina. Separation and Purification Technology, 50, 310-317.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2005.11.036
[45] Langmuir, I. (1916) The Constitution and Fundamental Properties of Solids and Liquids. Part I. Solids. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 38, 2221-2295.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja02268a002
[46] Sivasamy, A., Singh, K.P., Mohan, D. and Maruthamuthu, M. (2001) Studies on Defluoridation of Water by Coal- Based Sorbents. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 76, 717-722.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jctb.440
[47] Sivasankar, V., Murugesh, S., Rajkumar, S. and Darchen, A. (2013) Cerium Dispersed in Carbon (CeDC) and Its Adsorption Behavior: A First Example of Tailored Adsorbent for Fluoride Removal from Drinking Water. Chemical Engineering Journal, 214, 45-54.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2012.10.023
[48] Subramanian, E. and Ramalakshmi, R.D. (2010) Pristine, Purified and Polyaniline-Coated Tamarind Seed (Tamarindus indica) Biomaterial Powders for Defluoridation: Synergism and Enhancement in Fluoride Adsorption by Polyaniline Coating. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research, 69, 621-628.
[49] Turner, B.D., Binning, P. and Stipp, S.L.S. (2005) Fluoride Removal by Calcite: Evidence for Fluorite Precipitation and Surface Adsorption. Environmental Science & Technology, 39, 9561-9568.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es0505090
[50] Wajima, T., Umeta, Y., Narita, S. and Sugawara, K. (2009) Adsorption Behavior of Fluoride Ions Using a Titanium Hydroxide-Derived Adsorbent. Desalination, 249, 323-330.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.desal.2009.06.038
[51] Camacho, L.M., Torres, A., Saha, D. and Deng, S. (2010) Adsorption Equilibrium and Kinetics of Fluoride on Sol-Gel-Derived Activated Alumina Adsorbents. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 349, 307-313.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2010.05.066
[52] Vithanagea, M., Jayarathnaa, L., Rajapakshaa, A.U., Dissanayakea, C.B., Bootharajub, M.S. and Pradeep, T. (2012) Modeling Sorption of Fluoride on to Iron Rich Laterite. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 398, 69-75.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2012.02.011
[53] Sakhare, N., Lunge, S., Rayalu, R., Bakardjiva, S., Subrt, J., Devotta, S. and Labhsetwar, N. (2012) Defluoridation of Water Using Calcium Aluminate Material. Chemical Engineering Journal, 203, 406-414.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2012.07.065
[54] Chakrabarty, S. and Sarma, H.P. (2012) Defluoridation of Contaminated Drinking Water Using Neem Charcoal Adsorbent: Kinetics and Equilibrium Studies. International Journal of ChemTech Research, 4, 511-516.
[55] Sylvester, R.O., Oglesby, R.T., Carlson, D.A. and Christman, R.F. (1967) Factors Involved in the Location and Operation of an Aluminium Reduction Plant. Proceedings of the 22nd Industrial Waste Conference, Purdue, 2-4 May 1967, 441-454.
[56] Romanos, J., Beckner, M., Rash, T., Firlej, L., Kuchta, B., Yu, P., et al. (2012) Nanospace Engineering of KOH Activated Carbon. Nanotechnology, 23, Article ID: 015401.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0957-4484/23/1/015401
[57] Wang, S.G., Li, Y.H., Zhao, D., Xu, C.L., Luan, Z.K., Liang, J. and Wu, D.H. (2002) Preparation of Alumina Supported on Carbon Nanotubes and Its Application in Fluoride Adsorption from an Aqueous Solution. Chinese Science Bulletin, 47, 722-724.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1360/02tb9162
[58] Sarkar, M., Banerjee, A. and Pramanick, P.P. (2006) Kinetics and Mechanism of Fluoride Removal Using Laterite. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 45, 5920-5927.
[59] Sivasankar, V., Rajkumar, S., Murugesh, S. and Darchen, A. (2012) Influence of Shaking or Stirring Dynamic Methods in the Defluoridation Behaviour of Activated Tamarind Fruit Shell Carbon. Chemical Engineering Journal, 197, 162- 172.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2012.05.023
[60] Maliyekkal, S.M., Sharma, A.K. and Philip, L. (2006) Manganese-Oxide-Coated Alumina: A Promising Sorbent for Defluoridation of Water. Water Research, 40, 3497-3506.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2006.08.007
[61] Gupta, A.K., Deva, D., Sharma, A. and Verma, N. (2009) Adsorptive Removal of Fluoride by Micro-Nanohierarchal Web of Activated Carbon Fibers. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 48, 9697-9707.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ie801688k
[62] Sundaram, C.S., Viswanathan, N. and Meenakshi, S. (2009) Defluoridation of Water Using Magnesia/Chitosan Composite. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 163, 618-624.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2008.07.009
[63] Kishore, M. and Hanumantharao, Y. (2010) Validation of Defluoridation Method with “Acacia Arabica” Plant by Product through 2n Factorial Experimentation—A Statistical Approach. International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology, 1, 1230-1235.
[64] Martin, R.J. and Ng, W.J. (1997) The Repeated Exhaustion and Chemical Regeneration of Activated Carbon. Water Research, 21, 961-965.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(87)80014-3
[65] Mondal, N.K., Bhaumik, R., Baur, T., Das, B., Roy, P. and Datta, J.K. (2012) Studies on Defluoridation of Water by Tea Ash: An Unconventional Biosorbent. Department of Environmental Science, The University of Burdwan, Burdwan, Chemical Science Transactions, 1, 239-256.
[66] American Public Health Association (2007) Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Water. 14th Edition, Washington.
[67] Ayoob, S. and Gupta, A.K. (2008) Insights into Isotherm Making in the Sorptive Removal of Fluoride from Drinking Water. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 152, 976-985.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.07.072
[68] Sekino, T. (2010) Synthesis and Applications of Titanium Oxide Nanotubes. In: Kijima, T., Ed., Inorganic and Metallic Nan Tubular Materials, Recent Technologies and Applications, X, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 17-32.
[69] Biswas, K., Bandhoyapadhyay, D. and Ghosh, U.C. (2007) Adsorption Kinetics of Fluoride on Iron(III)-Zirconium(IV) Hybrid Oxide. Adsorption, 13, 83-94.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10450-007-9000-1
[70] Polanyi, M. (1916) Adsorption of Gases by Asolid Non-Volatile Adsorbent. Verhandlungen der Physikalischen Gesellschaftzu Berlin, 18, 55.
[71] Perrich, J.R. (1981) Activated Carbon Adsorption for Waste Water Treatment. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton.
[72] Giles, C.H., MacEwan, T.H., Nakhwa, S.N. and Smith, D. (1960) Studies in Adsorption. Part XI. A System of Classification of Solution Adsorption Isotherms, and Its Use in Diagnosis of Adsorption Mechanisms and in Measurement of Specific Surface Areas of Solids. Department of Chemical Technology, The Royal College of Science & Technology, Glasgow.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.