Share This Article:

Production of Methane Emissions from Ruminant Husbandry: A Review

Abstract Full-Text HTML XML Download Download as PDF (Size:2613KB) PP. 1482-1493
DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.515141    9,356 Downloads   10,836 Views   Citations
Author(s)    Leave a comment

ABSTRACT

The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of methane (CH4) production from ruminants. The objectives are to identify the factors affecting CH4 production. Methane is a potent greenhouse gas (GHG). Ruminant livestock constitute worldwide the most important source of anthropogenic emissions of methane. There are two main factors influencing global warming change, an increase in greenhouse gas emissions and depletion of the ozone layer. Methane is associated with both factors. Ruminants (dairy, beef, goats, and sheep) are the main contributors to CH4 production. Their CH4 production is a natural and inevitable outcome of rumen fermentation. Feed is converted into products such as milk and meat. Many factors influence ruminant CH4 production, including level of intake, type and quality of feeds, energy consumption, animal size, growth rate, level of production, and environmental temperature. The methane emissions in dairy cows represent values from 151 to 497 g·day-1. Lactating cows produced more CH4 (354 g·day-1) than dry cows (269 g·day-1) and heifers (223 g·day-1). Dairy ewe generates 8.4 kg·head-1 annually. Holstein produced more CH4 (299 g·day-1) than the Crossbred (264 g·day-1). Methane emission by heifers grazing on fertilized pasture was higher (223 g·day-1) than that of heifers on unfertilized pasture (179 g·day-1). The average CH4 emissions are from 161 g·day-1 to 323 g·day-1 in beef cattle. Mature beef cows emit CH4 approximately from 240 g·day-1 to 396 g·day-1. Suffolk sheep emit 22 - 25 g·day-1. The bison’s annual CH4 emissions per year were 72 kg·head-1. The CH4 emission from manure depends on the physical form of the feces, the amount of digestible material, the climate, and the time they remained intact. The annual emissions from the pens and storage pond at dairy farm were 120 kg·cow-1.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Broucek, J. (2014) Production of Methane Emissions from Ruminant Husbandry: A Review. Journal of Environmental Protection, 5, 1482-1493. doi: 10.4236/jep.2014.515141.

References

[1] Smith, K., Cumby, T., Lapworth, J., Misselbrook, T. and Williams, A. (2007) Natural Crusting of Slurry Storage as an Abatement Measure for Ammonia Emissions on Dairy Farms. Biosystems Engineering, 97, 464-471.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2007.03.037
[2] Todd, R.W., Cole, N.A., Casey, K.D., Hagevoort, R. and Auvermann, B.W. (2011) Methane Emissions from Southern High Plains Dairy Wastewater Lagoons in the Summer. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 166-167, 575-580.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2011.04.040
[3] Stackhouse, K.R., Pan, Y., Zhao, Y. and Mitloehner, F.M. (2011) Greenhouse Gas and Alcohol Emissions from Feedlot Steers and Calves. Journal of Environmental Quality, 40, 899-906.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/jeq2010.0354
[4] Cassandro, M., Mele, M. and Stefanon, B. (2013) Genetic Aspects of Enteric Methane Emission in Livestock Ruminants. Italian Journal of Animal Science, 12, 450-458.
[5] Olesen, J.E., Schelde, K., Weiske, A., Weisbjerg, M.R., Asman, W.A.H. and Djurhuus, J. (2006) Modelling Greenhouse Gas Emissions from European Conventional and Organic Dairy Farms. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 112, 207-220.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2005.08.022
[6] Kristensen, T, Mogensen, L., Knudsen, M.T. and Hermansen, J.E. (2011) Effect of Production System and Farming Strategy on Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Commercial Dairy Farms in a Life Cycle Approach. Livestock Science, 140, 136-148.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2011.03.002
[7] Mihina, S., Kazimirova, V. and Copland, T.A. (2012) Technology for Farm Animal Husbandry. 1st Issue, Slovak Agricultural University, Nitra, 99 p.
[8] Moss, A.R., Jouany, J. and Newbold, J. (2000) Methane Production by Ruminants: Its Contribution to Global Warming. Annales De Zootechnie, 49, 231-253.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/animres:2000119
[9] Alemu, A.W., Ominski, K.H. and Kebreab, E. (2011) Estimation of Enteric Methane Emissions Trends (1990-2008) from Manitoba Beef Cattle Using Empirical and Mechanistic Models. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 91, 305-321.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4141/cjas2010-009
[10] Steinfeld, H. and Wassenaar, T. (2007) The Role of Livestock Production in Carbon and Nitrogen Cycles. Annual Review of Environment and Resources, 32, 271-294.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.energy.32.041806.143508
[11] Martin, C., Doreau, M. and Morgavi, D.P. (2010) Methane Mitigation in Ruminants: From Microbe to the Farm Scale. Animal, 4, 351-365.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731109990620
[12] Gerber, P.J., Hristov, A.N., Henderson, B., Makkar, H., Oh, J., Lee, C., et al. (2013) Technical Options for the Mitigation of Direct Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Livestock: A Review. Animal, 7, 220-234.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731113000876
[13] St-Pierre, B. and Wright, A.D.G. (2013) Diversity of Gut Methanogens in Herbivorous Animals. Animal, 7, 49-56.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731112000912
[14] Huarte, A., Cifuentes, V., Gratton, R. and Clausse, A. (2010) Correlation of Methane Emissions with Cattle Population in Argentine Pampas. Atmospheric Environment, 44, 2780-2786.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2010.03.012
[15] Shibata, M. and Terada, T. (2010) Factors Affecting Methane Production and Mitigation in Ruminants. Animal Science Journal, 81, 2-10.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-0929.2009.00687.x
[16] Mc Geough, E.J., Little, S.M., Janzen, H.H., McAllister, T.A., McGinn, S.M. and Beauchemin, K.A. (2012) Life-Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Dairy Production in Eastern Canada: A Case Study. Journal of Dairy Science, 95, 5164-5175.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2011-5229
[17] Brask, M., Lund, P., Weisbjerg, M.R., Hellwing, A.L.F., Poulsen, M., Larsen, M.K. and Hvelplund, T. (2013) Methane Production and Digestion of Different Physical Forms of Rapeseed as Fat Supplements in Dairy Cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 96, 2356-2365.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2011-5239
[18] Lassey, K.R. (2008) Livestock Methane Emission and Its Perspective in the Global Methane Cycle. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 48, 114-118.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/EA07220
[19] Beauchemin, K.A. and McGinn, S.M. (2005) Methane Emissions from Feedlot Cattle Fed Barley or Corn Diets. Journal of Animal Science, 83, 653-661.
[20] Merino, P., Ramirez-Fanlo, E., Arriaga, H., del Hierro, O., Artetxe, A. and Viguria, M. (2011) Regional Inventory of Methane and Nitrous Oxide Emission from Ruminant Livestock in the Basque Country. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 166-167, 628-640.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2011.04.081
[21] Beauchemin, K.A., Janzen, H.H., Little, S.M., McAllister, T.A. and McGinn, S.M. (2010) Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Beef Production in Western Canada: A Case Study. Agricultural Systems, 103, 371-379.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2010.03.008
[22] Hindrichsen, I.K., Wettstein, H.R., Machmüller, A. and Kreuzer, M. (2006) Methane Emission, Nutrient Degradation and Nitrogen Turnover in Dairy Cows and Their Slurry at Different Milk Production Scenarios with and without Concentrate Supplementation. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 113, 150-161.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2005.09.004
[23] Chagunda, M.G.G., Romer, D.A.M. and Roberts, D.J. (2009) Effect of Genotype and Feeding Regime on Enteric Methane, Non-Milk Nitrogen and Performance of Dairy Cows during the Winter Feeding Period. Livestock Science, 122, 323-332.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2008.09.020
[24] Madsen, J., Bjerg, B.S., Hvelplund, T., Weisbjerg, M.R. and Lund, P. (2010) Methane and Carbon Dioxide Ration in Excreted Air for Quantification of the Methane Production from Ruminants. Livestock Science, 129, 223-227.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2010.01.001
[25] Lassey, K.R. (2007) Livestock Methane Emission: From the Individual Grazing Animal through National Inventories to the Global Methane Cycle. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 142, 120-132.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2006.03.028
[26] Heyer, J. and Berger, U. (2000) Methane Emission from the Coastal Area in the Southern Baltic Sea. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, 51, 13-30.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/ecss.2000.0616
[27] Marani, L. and Alvala, P. (2007) Methane Emission from Lakes and Flood Plains in Pantanal, Brazil. Atmospheric Environment, 41, 1627-1633.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.10.046
[28] Keppler, F., Hamilton, J., Brab, M. and Rockmann, T. (2006) Methane Emission from Terrestrial Plants under Aerobic Conditions. Nature, 439, 187-191.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature04420
[29] Johnson, K.A. and Johnson, D.E. (1995) Methane Emissions from Cattle. Journal of Animal Science, 73, 2483-2492.
[30] McAllister, T.A., Mathison, E. and Cheng, K.J. (1996) Dietary, Environmental and Microbiological Aspects of Methane Production in Ruminants. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 76, 231-243.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4141/cjas96-035
[31] Hegarty, R.S. (2004) Genetic Diversity in Function and Microbial Metabolism of the Rumen. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 44, 1-9.
[32] Hegarty, R.S. (2004) Genotype Differences and Their Impact on Digestive Tract Function of Ruminants: A Review. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 44, 459-467.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/EA02148
[33] Le Corre, O. and Loubar, K. (2010) Chapter 2. Physical Properties and Combustion Features. In: Potocnik, P., Ed., Natural Gas, InTech, Morn Hill, 616 p.
http://www.intechopen.com/books/natural-gas/natural-gas-physical-properties-
and-combustion-features
[34] Jardine, C.N., Boardman, B., Osman, A., Vowles, J. and Palmer, J. (2003) Methane UK. Report. Environmental Change Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, 96 p.
http://www.eci.ox.ac.uk/research/energy/downloads/methaneuk/methaneukreport.pdf
[35] Hook, S.E., Wright, A.D.G. and McBride, B.W. (2010) Methanogens: Methane Producers of the Rumen and Mitigation Strategies. Archaea, 2010, Article ID: 945785.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/945785
[36] Gabitto, J.F. and Tsouris, C. (2010) Physical Properties of Gas Hydrates: A Review. Journal of Thermodynamics, 2010, Article ID: 271291.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2010/271291
[37] Lonero, A. (2008) How Are Methane Hydrates Formed, Preserved, and Released? Geology 340 Term Paper, University of Hawaii at Hilo, Hilo, 53-58.
[38] Friend, D.G., Ely, J.F. and Ingham, H. (1989) Thermophysical Properties of Methane. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, 18, 583-638.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.555828
[39] Keppler, F. and Rockmann, T. (2007) Methane, Plants and Climate Change. Scientific American, 296, 52-57.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0207-52
[40] Chianese, D.S., Rotz, C.A. and Richard, T.L. (2009a) Whole Farm Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Review with Application to a Pennsylvania Dairy Farm. Applied Engineering in Agriculture, 25, 431-442.
http://dx.doi.org/10.13031/2013.26895
[41] Bell, M.J., Wall, E., Russell, G., Morgan, C. and Simm, G. (2010) Effect of Breeding for Milk Yield, Diet and Management on Enteric METHANE emissions from Dairy Cows. Animal Production Science, 50, 817-826.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/AN10038
[42] Wilson, J.R. and Kennedy, P.M. (1996) Plant and Animal Constraints to Voluntary Feed Intake Associated with Fibre Characteristics and Particle Breakdown and Passage in Ruminants. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 47, 199-225.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/AR9960199
[43] Varga, G.A. and Kolver, E.S. (1997) Microbial and Animal Limitations to Fiber Digestion and Utilization. Journal of Nutrition, 127, 819-823.
[44] Murray, P.J., Moss, A., Lockyer, D.R. and Jarvis, S.C. (1999) A Comparison of Systems for Measuring Methane Emissions from Sheep. Journal of Agricultural Science, 133, 439-444.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0021859699007182
[45] Dini, Y., Gere, J., Briano, C., Manetti, M., Juliarena, P., Picasso, V., et al. (2012) Methane Emission and Milk Production of Dairy Cows Grazing Pastures Rich in Legumes or Rich in Grasses in Uruguay. Animals, 2, 288-300.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani2020288
[46] Munoz, C., Yan, T., Wills, D.A., Murray, S. and Gordon, A.W. (2012) Comparison of the Sulfur Hexafluoride Tracer and Respiration Chamber Techniques for Estimating Methane Emissions and Correction for Rectum Methane Output from Dairy Cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 95, 3139-3148.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2011-4298
[47] Benchaar, C. and Greathead, H. (2011) Essential Oils and Opportunities to Mitigate Enteric Methane Emissions from Ruminants. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 166-167, 338-355.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2011.04.024
[48] Knapp, J.R., Laur, G.L., Vadas, P.A., Weiss, W.P. and Tricarico, J.M. (2014) Enteric Methane in Dairy Cattle Production: Quantifying the Opportunities and Impact of Reducing Emissions. Journal of Dairy Science, 97, 3231-3261.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2013-7234
[49] McAllister, T.A. and Newbold, C.J. (2008) Redirecting Rumen Fermentation to Reduce Methanogenesis. Animal Production Science, 48, 7-13.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/EA07218
[50] Boadi, D.A. and Wittenberg, K.M. (2002) Methane Production from Dairy and Beef Heifers Fed Forages Differing in Nutrient Density Using the Sulphur Hexafluoride (SF6) Tracer Gas Technique. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 82, 201-206.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4141/A01-017
[51] Pinares-Patino, C.S., Waghorn, G.C., Machmüller, A., Vlaming, B., Molano, G., Cavanagh, A. and Clark, H. (2007) Methane Emissions and Digestive Physiology of Non-Lactating Dairy Cows Fed Pasture Forage. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 87, 601-613.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4141/CJAS06023
[52] Klevenhusen, F., Kreuzer, M. and Soliva, C.R. (2011) Enteric and Manure-Derived Methane and Nitrogen Emissions as Well as Metabolic Energy Losses in Cows Fed Balanced Diets Based on Maize, Barley or Grass Hay. Animal, 5, 450-461.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731110001795
[53] Song, M.K., Li, X.Z., Oh, Y.K., Lee, C.K. and Hyun, Y. (2011) Control of Methane Emission in Ruminants and Industrial Application of Biogas from Livestock Manure in Korea. Asian-Australian Journal of Animal Science, 24, 130-136.
http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2011.r.02
[54] Godbout, S., Verma, M., Larouche, J.P., Potvin, L., Chapman, A.M., Lemay, S.P., Pelletier, F. and Brar, S.K. (2010) Methane Production Potential (B0) of Swine and Cattle Manures—A Canadian Perspective. Environmental Technology, 31, 1371-1379.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593331003743096
[55] Ramin, M. and Huhtanen, P. (2013) Development of Equations for Predicting Methane Emissions from Ruminants. Journal of Dairy Science, 96, 2476-2493.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2012-6095
[56] Ellis, J.L., Kebreab, E., Odongo, N.E., McBride, B.W., Okine, E.K. and France, J. (2007) Prediction of Methane Production from Dairy and Beef Cattle. Journal of Dairy Science, 90, 3456-3467.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2006-675
[57] Beauchemin, K.A., Kreuzer, M., O’Mara, F. and McAllister, T.A. (2008) Nutritional Management for Enteric Methane Abatement: A Review. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 48, 21-27.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/EA07199
[58] Dijkstra, J., Van Zijderveld, S.M., Apajalahti, J.A., Bannink, A., Gerrits, W.J.J., Newbold, J.R., et al. (2011) Relationships between Methane Production and Milk Fatty Acid Profiles in Dairy Cattle. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 166-167, 590-595.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2011.04.042
[59] Middelaar, C.E. Van, Berentsen, P.B.M., Dijkstra, J. and De Boer, I.J.M. (2013) Evaluation of a Feeding Strategy to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Dairy Farming: The Level of Analysis Matters. Agricultural Systems, 121, 9-22.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2013.05.009
[60] Grainger, C., Clarke, T., Mcginn, S.M., Auldist, M.J., Beauchemin, K.A., Hannah, M.C., et al. (2007) Methane Emissions from Dairy Cows Measured Using the Sulphur Hexafluoride (SF6) Tracer and Chamber Techniques. Journal of Dairy Science, 90, 2755-2766.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2006-697
[61] Beauchemin, K.A., McGinn, S.M., Benchaar, C. and Holtshausen, L. (2009) Crushed Sunflower, Flax, or Canola Seeds in Lactating Dairy Cow Diets: Effects on Methane Production, Rumen Fermentation, and Milk Production. Journal of Dairy Science, 92, 2118-2127.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2008-1903
[62] Ulyatt, M., Lassey, K., Shelton, I. and Walker, C. (2002) Methane Emission from Dairy Cows and Wether Sheep Fed Subtropical Grass-Dominant Pastures in Midsummer in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 45, 227-234.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00288233.2002.9513513
[63] Pinares-Patino, C.S, Ulyatt, M.J., Lassey, K.R., Barry, T.N. and Holmes, C.W. (2003) Persistence of Differences between Sheep in Methane Emission under Generous Grazing Conditions. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 140, 227-233.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0021859603003071
[64] Boadi, D., Benchaar, C., Chiquette, J. and Masse, D. (2004) Mitigation Strategies to Reduce Enteric Methane Emissions from Dairy Cows: Update Review. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 84, 319-335.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4141/A03-109
[65] Waghorn, G.C. and Hegarty, R.S. (2011) Lowering Ruminant Methane Emissions through Improved Feed Conversion Efficiency. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 166-167, 291-301.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2011.04.019
[66] Bell, M.J., Wall, E., Simm, G. and Russell, G. (2011) Effects of Genetic Line and Feeding System on Methane Emissions from Dairy Systems. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 166-167, 699-707.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2011.04.049
[67] Garnsworthy, P.C., Craigon, J., Hernandez-Medrano, J.H. and Saunders, N. (2012) Variation among Individual Dairy Cows in Methane Measurements Made on Farm during Milking. Journal of Dairy Science, 95, 3181-3189.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3168/jds.2011-4606
[68] Chianese, D.S., Rotz, C.A. and Richard, T.L. (2009) Simulation of Methane Emissions from Dairy Farms to Assess Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategies. Transactions of the ASABE, 52, 1313-1323.
http://dx.doi.org/10.13031/2013.27781
[69] Haarlem Van, R.P., Desjardins, R.L., Gao, Z., Flesch, T.K. and Li, X. (2008) Methane and Ammonia Emissions from a Beef Feedlot in Western Canada for a Twelve-Day Period in The fall. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 88, 641-649.
http://dx.doi.org/10.4141/CJAS08034
[70] Younglove, B.A. and Ely, J.F. (1987) Thermophysical Properties of Fluids. II. Methane, Ethane, Propane, Isobutane, and Normal Butane. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data, 16, 577-798.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.555785
[71] Ridgwell, A., Marshall, S. and Gregson, K. (1999) Consumption of Atmospheric Methane by Soils: A Process Based Model. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 13, 59-70.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/1998GB900004
[72] Broucek, J. (2014) Methods of Methane Measuring in Ruminants. Slovak Journal of Animal Science, 47, 81-90.
[73] Dammgen, U., Meyer, U., Rosemann, C., Haenel, H.D. and Hutchings, N.J. (2013) Methane Emissions from Enteric Fermentation as Well as Nitrogen and Volatile Solids Excretions of German Calves—A National Approach. Landbauforschung-Applied Agricultural and Forestry Research, 63, 37-46.
[74] Bell, M.J. Cullen, B.R. and Eckard, R.J. (2012) The Influence of Climate, Soil and Pasture Type on Productivity and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Intensity of Modeled Beef Cow-Calf Grazing Systems in Southern Australia. Animals, 2, 540-558.
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani2040540
[75] Bell, M.J., Potterton, S.L., Craigon, J., Saunders, N., Wilcox, R.H., Hunter, M., et al. (2014) Variation in Enteric Methane Emissions among Cows on Commercial Dairy Farms. Animal, 9, 1540-1546.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1751731114001530
[76] Danielsson, R., Schnürer, A., Arthurson, V. and Bertilsson, J. (2012) Methanogenic Population and CH4 Production in Swedish Dairy Cows Fed Different Levels of Forage. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 78, 6172-6179.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00675-12
[77] Pedreira, S.M., Primavesi, O., Lima, M.A., Frighetto, R., de Oliveira, S.G. and Berchielli, T.T. (2009) Ruminal Methane Emission by Dairy Cattle in Southeast Brazil. Scientia Agricola (Piracicaba, Brazil), 66, 742-750.
[78] Eckard, R.J., Grainger, C. and de Klein, C.A.M. (2010) Options for the Abatement of Methane and Nitrous Oxide from Ruminant Production: A Review. Livestock Science, 130, 47-56.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2010.02.010
[79] Cottle, D. and Conington, J. (2013) Reducing Methane Emissions by Including Methane Production or Feed Intake in Genetic Selection Programmes for Suffolk Sheep. Journal of Agricultural Science, 151, 872-888.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0021859612001037
[80] Cavanagh, A., McNaughton, L., Clark, H., Greaves, J.M., Gowan, J.M., Pinares-Patino, C., et al. (2008) Methane Emissions from Grazing Jersey × Friesian Dairy Cows in Mid Lactation. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 48, 230-233.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/EA07277
[81] Münger, A. and Kreuzer, M. (2008) Absence of Persistent Methane Emission Differences in Three Breeds of Dairy Cows. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 48, 77-82.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/EA07219
[82] Bannink, A., van Schijndel, M.W. and Dijkstra, J. (2011) A Model of Enteric Fermentation in Dairy Cows to Estimate Methane Emission for the Dutch National Inventory Report Using the IPCC Tier 3 Approach. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 166-167, 603-618.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2011.04.043
[83] Pinares-Patino, C.S. and Clark, H. (2008a) Reliability of the Sulfur Hexafluoride Tracer Technique for Methane Emission Measurement from Individual Animals: An Overview. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 48, 223-229.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/EA07297
[84] Pinares-Patino, C.S., Molano, G., Smith, A. and Clark, H. (2008b) Methane Emissions from Dairy Cattle Divergently Selected for Bloat Susceptibility. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 48, 234-239.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/EA07296
[85] Laubach, J., Kelliher, F.M., Knight, T.W., Clark, H., Molano, G. and Cavanagh, A. (2008) Methane Emissions from Beef Cattle—A Comparison of Paddock- and Animal-Scale Measurements. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 48, 132-137.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/EA07256
[86] Vlaming, J.B., Lopez-Villalobos, N., Brookes, I.M., Hoskin, S.O. and Clark, H. (2008) Within- and Between-Animal Variance in Methane Emissions in Non-Lactating Dairy Cows. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 48, 124-127.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/EA07278
[87] McGinn, S.M., Beauchemin, K.A., Flesch, T.K. and Coates, T. (2009) Performance of a Dispersion Model to Estimate Methane Loss from Cattle in Pens. Journal of Environmental Quality, 38, 1796-1802.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2134/jeq2008.0531
[88] McGinn, S.M., Chen, D., Loh, Z., Hill, J., Beauchemin, K.A. and Denmead, O.T. (2008) Methane Emissions from Feedlot Cattle in Australia and Canada. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 48, 183-185.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/EA07204
[89] Loh, Z., Chen, D., Bai, M., Naylor, T., Griffith, D., Hill, J., et al. (2008) Measurement of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Australian Feedlot Beef Production Using Open-Path Spectroscopy and Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 48, 244-247.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/EA07244
[90] Cooprider, K.L., Mitloehner, F.M., Famula, T.R., Kebreab, E., Zhao, Y. and Van Eenennaam, A.L. (2011) Feedlot Efficiency Implications on Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Sustainability. Journal of Animal Science, 89, 2643-2656.
http://dx.doi.org/10.2527/jas.2010-3539
[91] Cottle, D.J., Nolan, J.V. and Wiedemann, S.G. (2011) Ruminant Enteric Methane Mitigation: A Review. Animal Production Science, 51, 491-514.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/AN10163
[92] Kelliher, F.M. and Clark, H. (2010) Methane Emissions from Bison—An Historic Herd Estimate for the North American Great Plains. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 150, 473-477.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agrformet.2009.11.019
[93] Sejian, V., Lal, R., Lakritz, J. and Ezeji, T. (2011) Measurement and Prediction of Enteric Methane Emission. International Journal of Biometeorology, 55, 1-16.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00484-010-0356-7
[94] VanderZaag, A.C., Wagner-Riddle, C., Park, K.-H. and Gordon, R.J. (2011) Methane Emissions from Stored Liquid Dairy Manure in a Cold Climate. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 166-167, 581-589.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2011.04.041
[95] Priano, M.E., Fuse, V.S., Ger, J.I., Berkovic, A.M., Williams, K.E., Guzman, S.A., Gratton, R. and Juliarena, M.P. (2014) Strong Differences in the CH4 Emission from Feces of Grazing Steers Submitted to Different Feeding Schedules. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 194, 145-150.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2014.04.011
[96] Gonzalez-Avalos, E. and Ruiz-Suarez, L.G. (2001) Methane Emission Factors from Cattle Manure in Mexico. Bioresource Technology, 80, 63-71.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(01)00052-9
[97] Saggar, S., Bolan, N.S., Bhandral, R., Hedley, C.B. and Luo, J. (2004) A Review of Emissions of Methane, Ammonia and Nitrous Oxide from Animal Excreta Deposition and Farm Effluent Application in Grazed Pastures. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 47, 513-544.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00288233.2004.9513618
[98] Bjorneberg, D.L., Leytem, A.B., Westermann, D.T., Griffiths, P.R., Shao, L. and Pollard, M.J. (2009) Measurement of Atmospheric Ammonia, Methane, and Nitrous Oxide at a Concentrated Dairy Production Facility in Southern Idaho Using Open-Path FTIR Spectrometry. Transactions of the ASABE, 52, 1749-1756.
http://dx.doi.org/10.13031/2013.29137

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.