Share This Article:

Investigating Consumer Preferences in Choosing Vegetarian Restaurants Using Conjoint Analysis

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:2525KB) PP. 279-290
DOI: 10.4236/cus.2014.23026    4,162 Downloads   5,597 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

People who eat out in urban are more common than ever before. However, restaurant foods are often high in calories, and lack for enough vegetables. Moreover, they provide too many calories from animal fat and protein resulting in a high risk of cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. Furthermore, a diet high in animal products contributes to global warming. For these reasons, a vegetarian diet can be recommended. The main purposes of this study are the following: (1) Un-derstanding and evaluating the customers’ preferences when selecting vegetarian restaurants. (2) In order to decrease the disease risks and the negative impact on the planet caused by a meat diet, researching ways to encourage consumers to choose vegetarian restaurants. The results of conjoint analysis indicated that when people choose vegetarian restaurants, they prefer ones that provide Chinese style cuisines, organic foods, cuisines that can help to lose weight, interiors with simple décor and ones that promote environmental protection.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Cheng, C. , Lin, S. and Tsai, C. (2014) Investigating Consumer Preferences in Choosing Vegetarian Restaurants Using Conjoint Analysis. Current Urban Studies, 2, 279-290. doi: 10.4236/cus.2014.23026.

References

[1] Almanza, B. A., Jaffe, W., & Lin, L. (1994). Use of the Service Attribute Matrix to Measure Consumer Satisfaction. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 17, 63-75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109634809401700207
[2] Auty, S. (1992). Consumer Choice and Segmentation in the Restaurant Industry. The Service Industries Journal, 12, 324-339. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02642069200000042
[3] Blasa, M., Gennari, L., Angelino, D., & Ninfali, P. (2010). Fruit and Vegetable Antioxidants in Health. In Bioactive Foods in Promoting Health: Fruits and Vegetables (pp. 37-58). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
[4] Brady, M. K., & Cronin, J. J. (2001). Some New Thoughts on Conceptualizing Perceived Service Quality: A Hierarchical Approach. Journal of Marketing, 65, 34-49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1509/jmkg.65.3.34.18334
[5] Cao, S. X. (2001). Tourism Marketing. Taipei: Yang-Chih Book Co., Ltd.
[6] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (2007). Fruit and Vegetable Consumption among Adults, United States, 2005 (pp. 213-217). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
[7] Centre for International Economics. (2001). Review of willingness-to-pay methodologies. Prepared for the Independent Pricing and Regulatory Tribunal of NSW, Canberra.
[8] Fox, A. M. (1999). The Contribution of Vegetarianism to Ecosystem Health. Ecosystem Health, 5, 70-74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1526-0992.1999.09911.x
[9] Glanz, K., Resnicow, K., Seymour, J., Hoy, K., Stewart, H., L. M., & Goldberg, J. (2007). How Major Restaurant Chains Plan Their Menus: The Role of Profit, Demand, and Health. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 32, 383-388. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2007.01.003
[10] Goodland, R., & Anhang, J. (2009). Livestock and Climate Change. http://www.worldwatch.org/ww.livestock
[11] Grankvist, G., & Biel, A. (2001). The Importance of Beliefs and Purchase Criteria in the Choice of Eco-Labeled Food Products. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 21, 405-410. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jevp.2001.0234
[12] Green, P. E., & Krieger, A.M. (1996). Individualized Hybrid Models for Conjoint Analysis. Management Science, 42, 850- 867. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.42.6.850
[13] Green, P. E., & Srinivasan, V. (1978). Conjoint Analysis in Consumer Research: Issues and Outlook. Journal of Consumer Research, 5, 103-123. http://www.jstor.org/stable/2489001 http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/208721
[14] Gundgaard, J., Nielsen, J. N., Olsen, J., & S?rensen, J. (2003). Increased Intake of Fruit and Vegetables: Estimation of Impact in Terms of Life Expectancy and Healthcare Costs. Public Health Nutrition, 6, 25-30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/PHN2002355
[15] Hu, H. H., Parsa, H. G., & Self, J. (2010). The Dynamics of Green Restaurant Patronage. Cornell Hospitality Quarterly, 51, 344-362. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1938965510370564
[16] IARC (2003). Fruit and Vegetables Protective Overall against Cancer. International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon. http://www.iarc.fr/en/media-centre/pr/2003/pr144.html
[17] Kalof, L., Dietz, T., Stern, P. C., & Guagnano, G. A. (1999). Social Psychological and Structural Influences on Vegetarian Beliefs. Rural Sociology, 64, 500-511. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1549-0831.1999.tb00364.x
[18] Kant, A. K., & Graubard, B. I. (2004). Eating out in America, 1987-2000: Trends and Nutritional Correlates. Preventive Me- dicine, 38, 243-249. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2003.10.004
[19] Knutson, B. J., & Patton, M. E. (1993). Restaurants Can Find Gold among Silver Hair. Journal of Hospitality and Leisure Marketing, 1, 79-90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J150v01n03_07
[20] Koo, L. C., Tao, K. C., & Yeung, J. H. C. (1999). Preferential Segmentation of Restaurant Attributes through Conjoint Ana- lysis. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 11, 242-253. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09596119910272784
[21] Lai, C. Y. (2005). The Effects of College Students’ Health Diets Behaviors. Master’s Thesis, Taipei: National Taiwan Normal University.
[22] Lai, J. Y. (2010). Reduce Carbon and Eat Less Meat to Save the Earth. Vegetarian Publication.
[23] Lee, S. J., & Crange, D. A. (2007). The Relative Importance of Menu Attributes at Point of Menu Selection through Conjoint Analysis: Focused on Adolescents. Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 10, 3-18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J369v10n02_02
[24] Lehmann, D. R., Gupta, S., & Steckel, J. H. (1998). Marketing Research. Boston, MA: Addison Wesley.
[25] Lewis, R. C., Ding, S., & Geschke, U. (1991). Using Trade-Off Analysis to Measure Consumer Choices: The Full Profile Method. Journal of Hospitality &Tourism Research Journal, 15, 75-92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/109634809101500107
[26] Lin, J. H. (2002). Marketing Management. Taipei: Best Wise Co., Ltd.
[27] Liu, Y., & Jang, S. (2009). Perceptions of Chinese Restaurants in the U.S.: What Affects Customer Satisfaction and Behavioral Intentions? International Journal of Hospitality Management, 28, 338-348. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2008.10.008
[28] Lo, A., & Lam, T. (2004). Long-Haul and Short-Haul Outbound All-Inclusive Package Tours. Asia Pacific Journal of Tourism Research, 9, 161-176. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1094166042000233694
[29] Lockie, S., Lyons, K., Lawrence, G., & Mummery, K. (2002). Eating “Green”: Motivations behind Organic Food Consumption in Australia. Sociologia Ruralis, 42, 23-40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9523.00200
[30] Makatouni, A. (2002). What Motivates Consumers to Buy Organic Food in the UK? Results from a Qualitative Study. British Food Journal, 104, 345-352. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00070700210425769
[31] Manaktola, K., & Jauhari, V. (2007). Exploring Consumer Attitude and Behavior towards Green Practices in the Lodging Industry in India. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 19, 364-377. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09596110710757534
[32] McEachern, M.G., & McClean, P. (2002). Organic Purchasing Motivations and Attitudes: Are They Ethical? International Journal of Consumer Studies, 26, 85-92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1470-6431.2002.00199.x
[33] Myung, R. (2003). Conjoint Analysis as a New Methodology for Korean Typography Guideline in Web Environment. Inter- national Journal of Industrial Ergonomics, 32, 341-348. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-8141(03)00074-X
[34] N?s, T., Kubber?d, E., & Sivertsen, H. (2001). Identifying and Interpreting Market Segments Using Conjoint Analysis. Food Quality and Preference, 12, 133-143. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0950-3293(00)00039-2
[35] Perry, C. L., Mcguire, M. T., Neumark-Sztainer, D., & Story, M. (2001). Characteristics of Vegetarian Adolescents in a Mul- tiethnic Urban Population. Journal of Adolescent Health, 29, 406-416. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X(01)00258-0
[36] Phadke, M. S. (1989). Quality Engineering Using Robust Design. Upper Saddle River, NJ: PTR Prentice-Hall.
[37] Poulston, J., & Yiu, A. Y. K. (2011). Profit or Principles: Why Do Restaurants Serve Organic Food? International Journal of Hospitality Management, 30, 184-191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2010.04.004
[38] Raajpoot, N. A. (2002). TANGSERV: A Multiple Item Scale for Measuring Tangible Quality in Food Service Industry. Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 5, 109-127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J369v05n02_08
[39] Radman, M. (2005). Consumer Consumption and Perception of Organic Products in Croatia. British Food Journal, 107, 263- 273. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00070700510589530
[40] Reddy, V. S., Bush, R. J., & Roudik, R. (1995). A Market-Oriented Approach to Maximizing Product Benefits: Cases in U.S. Forest Products Industries. US Forest Service, 19-38.
[41] Robertson, A., Tirado, C., Lobstein, T., Jermini, M., Knai, C., Jensen, J. et al. (2004). Food and Health in Europe: A New Basis for Action. European Series, No. 96. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Publications.
[42] Ryan, M. (1999). Using Conjoint Analysis to Take Account of Patient Preferences and Go Beyond Health Outcomes: An Application to in Vitro Fertilization. Social Science and Medicine, 48, 535-546. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(98)00374-8
[43] Ryu, K., & Jang, S. (2008). DINESCAPE: A Scale for Customers’ Perception of Dining Environments. Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 11, 2-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15378020801926551
[44] Schmidt, M., Affenito, S. G., Striegel-Moore, R., Khoury, P. R., Barton, B., Crawford, P. et al. (2005). Fast-Food Intake and Diet Quality in Black and White Girls: the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 159, 626-631. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.159.7.626
[45] Soriano, D. R. (2002). Customers’ Expectations Factors in Restaurants: The Situation in Spain. International Journal of Quality and Reliability Management, 19, 1055-1068. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02656710210438122
[46] Stahler, C. (2009). How Many Vegetarians Are There? Vegetarian Journal, 4, 6-9.
[47] Sulek, J. M., & Hensley, R. L. (2004). The Relative Importance of Food, Atmosphere, and Fairness of Wait: The Case of a Full-Service Restaurant. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 45, 235-248.
[48] Sun, L. H. (1995). Consumer Involvement in Restaurant Selection: A Measure of Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction (I). Journal of Nutrition in Recipe and Menu Development, 1, 45-58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J071v01n02_04
[49] Turner, M., & Collison, R. (1988). Consumer Acceptance of Meals and Meal Components. Food Quality and Preference, 1, 21-24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0950-3293(88)90004-3
[50] U. N. Report (2010). UN Urges Global Move to Meat and Dairy-Free Diet. Lesser Consumption of Animal Products Is Necessary to Save the World from the Worst Impacts of Climate Change. http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/2010/jun/02/un-report-meat-free-diet
[51] U. S. Department of Health and Human Services (USDHHS) (2010). Dietary Guidelines for Americans. http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2010/dietaryguidelines2010.pdf
[52] Unilever Global Company (2011). The Population for Eating out in Taiwan. http://www.unileverfoodsolutions.tw/who-we-are/news/detail-1216._quotquot_quotquot_quotquot.html
[53] Van der Pol, M., & Ryan, M. (1996). Using Conjoint Analysis to Establish Consumer Preferences for Fruit and Vegetables. British Food Journal, 98, 5-12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00070709610150879
[54] Vieregge, M., Scanlon, N., & Huss, J. (2007). Marketing Locally Grown Food Products in Globally Branded Restaurants: Do Customers Care? Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 10, 67-82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J369v10n02_05
[55] Washington DC, Word Watch (2009). Livestock Emissions: Still Grossly Underestimated. November/December. http://www.worldwatch.org/node/6297
[56] Wasserman, D., & Stahler, C. (1998). Reader Survey Results. Vegetarian Journal, 17, 4.
[57] WHO (2003). Definition of Health. http://www.who.int/about/definition/en/print.html
[58] Zanoli, R., & Naspetti, S. (2002). Consumer Motivations in the Purchase of Organic Food: A Means-End Approach. British Food Journal, 104, 643-653. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00070700210425930

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.