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Predicting Birth-Related Levator Ani Tear Severity in Primiparous Women: Evaluating Maternal Recovery from Labor and Delivery (EMRLD Study)

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DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2014.46043    4,508 Downloads   5,868 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine which maternal characteristics or birth events independently predict severity of levator ani muscle (LA) tears at first vaginal birth in a longitudinal/observational investigation in a tertiary care hospital. Sample: Ninety primiparas with at least one at risk for LA tear inclusion factor at vaginal birth: maternal age ≥ 33 years, second stage ≥ 150 minutes, macrosomia, instrumented delivery, and/or anal sphincter laceration were studied. Methods: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was obtained early postpartum (mean ± sd 48.9 ± 21.6 days) to identify LA tear. Severity of LA muscle fiber loss was graded on an ordinal scale of: “0” as no loss, “1” as <50% unilateral loss, “2” as ≥50% unilateral or <50% bilateral loss, and “3” as ≥50% bilateral loss. Data were analyzed using proportional odds modeling. Inclusion factors were explored as predictors of LA tear severity and at analysis episiotomy, time spent actively pushing, epidural, and oxytocin were also considered. The main outcome measures of interest included grading of severity of LA muscle fiber loss on an ordinal scale. Results: Respective counts/percentages of women within each 0 thru 3 ordered category of LA tear severity were: “0” = 58(64%), “1” = 9(10%), “2” = 15(17%), and “3” = 8(9%). Estimates and 95% CI for significant demographic or obstetric univariate predictors of LA tear severity level were age, OR 1.093 (CI 1.012 - 1.180), p = 0.023; and time spent in active pushing, OR 1.089 (CI 1.005 - 1.180), p = 0.038. The other factors considered were not significant. There were too few women with forceps deliveries to analyze. Conclusion: In our enriched sample of primiparous women, 26% showed a significant LA tear. Maternal age and time spent actively pushing independently predict LA tear severity.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Low, L. , Zielinski, R. , Tao, Y. , Galecki, A. , Brandon, C. and Miller, J. (2014) Predicting Birth-Related Levator Ani Tear Severity in Primiparous Women: Evaluating Maternal Recovery from Labor and Delivery (EMRLD Study). Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 4, 266-278. doi: 10.4236/ojog.2014.46043.

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