Share This Article:

Rice Green Revolution and Climatic Change in East Africa: An Approach from the Technical Efficiency of Rainfed Rice Farmers in Uganda

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:609KB) PP. 330-341
DOI: 10.4236/as.2014.54035    3,470 Downloads   4,783 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

In East Africa where a drastic improvement in food security is an urgent need, rice, a non-traditional crop in most of countries in the region, has emerged as an important food crop that could extend the Green Revolution to the region following the introduction of New Rice for Africa (NERICA) in the early 2000s. Using data collected through a nationwide survey, this paper examines the possibility of rice green revolution by estimating the technical efficiency (TE) of rainfed rice farmers in Uganda and simulates how unfavorable climate changes affect it. The estimated stochastic frontier yield function showed that the mean TE was 65% for lowland and 60% for upland, and that the potential yield of rainfed rice cultivation was as high as 3 t·ha-1. However, the stochastic simulation of rainfall and rice yield revealed that unfavorable climate changes could erase the high potential in crop yield. Rainfed rice cultivation could be a leading sector for realizing Green Revolution in East Africa. It plays a critical role in this process to improve rice farmers’ TE, which is lower in the region than in Asia. Worsening climatic conditions, if occur, make this need even more imperative.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Maruyama, A. , Haneishi, Y. , Okello, S. , Asea, G. , Tsuboi, T. , Takagaki, M. and Kikuchi, M. (2014) Rice Green Revolution and Climatic Change in East Africa: An Approach from the Technical Efficiency of Rainfed Rice Farmers in Uganda. Agricultural Sciences, 5, 330-341. doi: 10.4236/as.2014.54035.

References

[1] Otsuka, K. and Kalirajan, K. (2006) Rice Green Revolution in Asia and Its Transferability to Arica: An Introduction. The Developing Economies, 44, 107-122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1049.2006.00009.x
[2] Somado, E.A., Guei, R.G. and Keya, S.O. (2008) NERICA: The New Rice for Africa—A Compendium. Africa Rice Center, Cotonou, 1-195.
[3] Larson, D.F., Otsuka, K., Kajisa, K., Estudillo, J. and Diagne, A. (2010) Can Africa Replicate Asia’s Green Revolution in Rice? Policy Research Working Paper 5478. World Bank, Washington DC.
[4] Barker, R. and Herdt, R.W. (1985) The Rice Economy of Asia. Resources for the Future, Washington DC.
[5] Balasubramanian, V., Sie, M., Hijmans, R.J. and Otsuka, K. (2007) Increasing Rice Production in Sub-Saharan Africa: Challenges and Opportunities. Advances in Agronomy, 94, 55-133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2113(06)94002-4
[6] Fujiie, H., Maruyama, A., Fujiie, M., Takagaki, M., Merrey, D.J. and Kikuchi, M. (2011) Why Invest in Minor Projects in Sub-Saharan Africa? An Exploration of the Scale Economy and Diseconomy of Irrigation Projects. Irrigation and Drainage Systems, 25, 39-60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10795-011-9111-4
[7] IPCC (2001) Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 61-77.
[8] Challinor, A., Wheeler, T., Garforth, C., Craufurd, P. and Kassam, A. (2007) Assessing the Vulnerability of Food Crop Systems in Africa to Climate Change. Climatic Change, 83, 381-399. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10584-007-9249-0
[9] Williams, A.P. and Funk, C. (2011) A Westward Extension of the Warm Pool Leads to a Westward Extension of the Walker Circulation, Drying Eastern Africa. Climate Dynamics, 37, 2417-2435.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00382-010-0984-y
[10] Kijima, Y., Sserunkuuma, D. and Otsuka, K. (2006) How Revolutionary Is the “NERICA Revolution”? Evidence from Uganda. The Developing Economies, 44, 252-267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1049.2006.00016.x
[11] Nakano, Y., Bamba, I., Diagne, A., Otsuka, K. and Kajisa, K. (2011) The Possibility of a Rice Green Revolution in Large-Scale Irrigation Schemes in Sub-Saharan Africa, World Bank Working Paper 5560. World Bank, Washington DC.
[12] World Bank (2007) Africa Region: Irrigation Business Plan. World Bank Africa Region, Washington DC, 1-98.
[13] Farrell, M.J. (1957) The Measurement of Productive Efficiency. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A, 120, 253-281. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2343100
[14] Coelli, T.J., Rao, D.S.P. and Battese, G.E. (2000) An Introduction to Efficiency and Productivity Analysis. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, 1-275.
[15] Aigner, D., Lovell, C.A.K. and Schmidt, P. (1977) Formulation and Estimation of Stochastic Frontier Function Models. Journal of Econometrics, 6, 21-37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0304-4076(77)90052-5
[16] Battese, G.E. and Coelli, T.J. (1995) A Model for Technical Inefficiency Effects in a Stochastic Frontier Production for Panel Data. Empirical Economics, 20, 325-332. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01205442
[17] Jondrow, J., Lovell, C.A.K., Materov, I.S. and Schmidt, P. (1982) On the Estimation of Technical Inefficiency in the Stochastic Frontier Production Function Model. Journal of Econometrics, 19, 232-238.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0304-4076(82)90004-5
[18] NaCRRI (2010) Rice Cultivation Handbook. NERICA Promotion Project. NaCRRI, Namulonge, 7-8.
[19] Haneishi, Y., Okello, S.E., Asea, G., Tsuboi, T., Maruyama, A., Takagaki, M. and Kikuchi, M. (2013) Exploration of Rainfed Rice Farming in Uganda Based on a Nationwide Survey: Evolution, Regionality, Farmers and Land. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 8, 3318-3329.
[20] Kijima, Y., Otsuka, K. and Sserunkuuma, D. (2011) An Inquiry into Constraints on a Green Revolution in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case of NERICA Rice in Uganda. World Development, 39, 77-86.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2010.06.010
[21] Fujiie, H., Maruyama, A., Fujiie, M., Takagaki, M. and Kikuchi M. (2010) Determinants of NERICA Adoption in Uganda Based on Duration Analysis. Tropical Agriculture and Development, 54, 17-24.
[22] Miyamoto, K., Maruyama, A., Haneishi, Y., Matsumoto, S., Tsuboi, T., Asea, G., Okello, S.E., Takagaki, M. and Kikuchi, M. (2012) NERICA Cultivation and Its Yield Determinants: The Case of Upland Rice Farmers in Namulonge, Central Uganda. Journal of Agricultural Science, 4, 120-135.
[23] FAO (2013) FAOSTAT. http://faostat.fao.org/site/291/default.aspx
[24] Haneishi, Y., Maruyama, A., Asea, G., Okello, S.E., Tsuboi, T., Takagaki, M. and Kikuchi, M. (2013) Exploration of Rainfed Rice Farming in Uganda Based on a Nationwide Survey: Regionality, Varieties and Yield. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 8, 4038-4048.
[25] Kijima, Y., Otsuka, K. and Sserunkuuma, D. (2008) Assessing the Impact of NERICA on Income and Poverty in Central and Western Uganda. Agricultural Economics, 38, 327-337. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-0862.2008.00303.x
[26] Umeh, J.C. and Ataborh, E.M. (2007) Efficiency of Rice Farmers in Nigeria: Potentials for Food Security and Poverty Alleviation. Proceedings of 16th International Farm Management Congress, Cork, 15-20 July 2007, 613-625.
[27] Tiamiyu, S.A., Akintola, J.O. and Rahji, M.A.Y. (2010) Production Efficiency among Growers of New Rice for Africa in the Savanna Zone of Nigeria. Agricultura Tropica et Subtropica, 43,134-139.
[28] Al-Hassan, S. (2008) Technical Efficiency of Rice Farmers in Northern Ghana. AERC Research Paper 178. African Economic Research Consortium.
[29] Audibert, M. (1997) Technical Inefficiency Effects among Paddy Farmers in the Villages of the “Office Du Niger”, Mali, West Africa. Journal of Productivity Analysis, 8, 379-394. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1007767508848
[30] Hyuha, T.S., Bashaasha, B., Nkonya, E. and Kraybill, D. (2007) Analysis of Profit Inefficiency in Rice Production in Eastern and Northern Uganda. African Crop Science Journal, 15, 243-253.
[31] Tadesse, B. and Krishnamoorthy, S. (1997) Technical Efficiency in Paddy Farms of Tamil Nadu: an Analysis Based on Farm Size and Ecological Zone. Agricultural Economics, 16, 185-192.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-5150(97)00004-2
[32] Xu, X. and Jeffrey, S.R. (1998) Efficiency and Technical Progress in Traditional and Modern Agriculture: Evidence from Rice Production in China. Agricultural Economics, 18, 157-165.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-5150(97)00050-9
[33] Mariano, M.J., Villano, R. and Fleming, E. (2010) Are Irrigated Farming Ecosystems More Productive than Rainfed Farming Systems in Rice Production in the Philippines? Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 139, 603-610.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2010.10.004
[34] Tan, S., Heerink, N., Kuyvenhoven, A. and Qu, F. (2010) Impact of Land Fragmentation on Rice Producers’ Technical Efficiency in South-East China. NJAS-Wageningen Journal of Life Sciences, 57, 117-123.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.njas.2010.02.001
[35] Lamo, J., Imanywoha, J., Bigirwa, G., Walusimbi, M., Kyetere, D., Kikafunda, J. and Kalule, T. (2010) First NERICA Rice Released in Uganda Tops Farmers’ Rankings. International Rice Research Notes, 35, 1-4.
[36] Seyoum, E.T., Battese, G.E. and Fleming, E.M. (1998) Technical Efficiency and Productivity of Maize Producers in Eastern Ethiopia: A Study of Farmers within and Outside the Sasakawa-Global 2000 Project. Agricultural Economics, 19, 341-348. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0169-5150(98)00037-1
[37] Ejeta, G. (2010) African Green Revolution Needn’t Be a Mirage. Science, 327, 831-832.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1187152

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.