Share This Article:

Dielectric Analysis of Response Time in Electrorheological Fluids Developed for Medical Devices

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:1305KB) PP. 85-92
DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2011.22009    4,744 Downloads   9,694 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Three electrorheological fluids (ERFs) of recently synthesized Polyaniline.HCl and Cellulose fluids as well as a commercial product from Fludicon® (Germany), were evaluated with a two-electrode probe unit and by Dielectric Analysis (DEA). The study was a part of an ongoing medical device development project. The dielectric response times were calculated using the critical peak frequency in a corresponding Debye plot of Tan Delta (loss factor/permittivity) vs. log frequency. The DEA revealed the response times (tau, τ) in ms. The Fludicon® ERF was DEA durable (repeat cycles produced same results) and the τ was temperature dependent: 16 ms at 25°C and 0.16 ms at 80°C. The Cellulose ERF was somewhat DEA durable and the τ was 5.5 ms at 25°C and 0.21 ms at 80°C. The response times were logarithmic with the temperature (°C) with a correlation coefficient of >0.98 for the Cellulose and Fludicon® ERFs. The Polyaniline ERF had a τ of 53 ms at 25°C in the 1st DEA run and there was no indication of a τ for the remaining DEA tests.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

N. Perera, M. Maheswaram, D. Mantheni, D. Perera, M. Matthews, A. Riga and T. Yellowe, "Dielectric Analysis of Response Time in Electrorheological Fluids Developed for Medical Devices," American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 2 No. 2, 2011, pp. 85-92. doi: 10.4236/ajac.2011.22009.

References

[1] J. Wei, L. Zhao, S. Peng, J. Shi, Z. Liu and W. Wen, “Wettability of Urea-Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles and Their High Electrorheological Effects,” Journal of Sol-Gel Science and Technology, Vol. 47, No. 3, 2008, pp. 311-315. doi:10.1007/s10971-008-1787-z
[2] T. Tilki, M. Yavuz, C. Karabacak, M. Cabuk and M. Ulutuerk, “Investigation of Electrorheological Properties of Biodegradable Modified Cellulose/Corn Oil Suspensions,” Carbohydrate Research, Vol. 345, No. 5, 2010, pp. 672-679. doi:10.1016/j.carres.2009.12.025
[3] D. P. Park, J. Y. Hwang, H. J. Choi, C. A. Kim and M. S. Jhon, “Synthesis and Characterization of Polysaccharide Phosphates Based Electrorheological Fluids,” Materials Research Innovations, Vol. 7, No. 3, 2003, pp. 161-166. doi:10.1007/s10019-003-0242-6
[4] J. Yin, X. Zhao, X. Xia, L. Xiang and Y. Qiao, “Electrorheological Fluids Based on Nano-Fibrous Polyaniline,” Polymer, Vol. 49, No. 20, 2008, pp. 4413-4419. doi:10.1016/j.polymer.2008.08.009
[5] Y. Liu and P. P. Phule, “Structure Formation in Novel Electrorheological (ER) Fluids Based on Ultrafine Particles of Electronic Ceramics,” Polymer Preprints (Ame- rican Chemical Society, Division of Polymer Chemistry), Vol. 35, No. 2, 1994, pp. 347-348.
[6] D. Kittipoomwong, D. J. Klingenberg, Y. M. Shkel, J. F. Morris and J. C. Ulicny. “Transient Behavior of Electrorheological Fluids in Shear Flow,” Journal of Rheology, Vol. 52, No. 1, 2008, pp. 225-241. doi:10.1122/1.2794803
[7] W. M. Winslow, “Induced Fibrillation of Suspensions,” Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 20, No. 12, 1949, pp. 1137-1140. doi:10.1063/1.1698285
[8] Z. P. Shulman, R. Gorodkin, E. Korobko and V. Gleb. “The Electrorheological Effect and Its Possible Uses,” Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 8, No. 1-2, 1981, pp. 29-41. doi:10.1016/0377-0257(81)80003-1
[9] J. P. Coulter, K. D. Weiss and J. D. Carlson, “Engineering Applications of Electrorheological Materials,” Journal of Intelligent Material Systems and Structures, Vol. 4, No. 2, 1993, pp. 248-259. doi:10.1177/1045389X9300400215
[10] J. W. Pialet and K. O. Havelka. “Electrorheological Tech- nology: The Future is Now,” Chemtech, Vol. 26, 1996, pp. 3645-3653.
[11] C. F. Zukoski, “Material Properties and the Electrorheological Response,” Annual Review of Materials Science, Vol. 23, 1993, pp. 45-78. doi:10.1146/annurev.ms.23.080193.000401
[12] A. T. Riga and L. Judovits, “Material Characterization by Dynamic and Modulated Thermal Analytical Techniques,” ASTM Special Technical Publication, USA, 2001.
[13] L. Nunez-Regueira, S. Gomez-Barreiro and C. A. Gracia-Fernandez, “Study of the Influence of Isomerism on the Curing Properties of the Epoxy System DGEBA (n = 0)/1,2 DCH by DEA and MDSC,” Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, Vol. 82, No. 3, 2005, pp. 797-801. doi:10.1007/s10973-005-0966-1
[14] C. M. Kinart, W. J. Kinart, D. Checinska-Majak and A. Bald, “Densities and Relative Permittivities for Mixtures of 2-Methoxyethanol with DEA and TEA, at Various Temperatures,” Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, Vol. 75, No. 1, 2004, pp. 347-354. doi:10.1023/B:JTAN.0000017355.26845.a4
[15] N. Zanati, M. E. Mathews, N. I. Perera, J. J. Moran, J. A. Boutros, A. T. Riga and M. Bayachou, “Cholesterol Levels and Activity of Membrane Bound Proteins: Characterization by Thermal and Electrochemical Methods,” Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, Vol. 96, No. 3, 2009, pp. 669-672. doi:10.1007/s10973-009-0032-5
[16] M. E. Matthews, I. Atkinson, L. Presswala, O. Najjar, N. Gerhardstein, R. Wei, E. Rye and A. T. Riga, “Dielectric Classification of D and L Amino Acids by Thermal and Analytical Methods,” Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, Vol. 93, No. 1, 2008, pp. 281-287. doi:10.1007/s10973-007-8835-8
[17] L. Johnston, “ Electrorheological Dampers for Industrial and Mobile Applications—An Overview of Design Variations, Product Realisation and Performance,” Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on New Actuators, Bremen, 9-11 June 2008, p. 499.
[18] S. Schneider, K. Holzmann, W. Kemmetmüller, L. Johnston and D. Li?man, “Development and Testing of a Semi-Active Suspension System for Off-Road Trucks Using Electrorheological Dampers,” Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on New Actuators, Bremen, 9-11 June 2008, p. 485.
[19] M. Gurka, D. Adams, L. Johnston and R. Petricevic, “New Electrorheological Fluids—Characteristics and Implementation in Industrial and Mobile Applications,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Vol. 149, No. 1 2009, Article ID 012008.
[20] S. Ulrich, G. B?hme and R. Bruns. “Measuring the Response Time and Static Rheological Properties of Electrorheological Fluids with Regard to the Design of Valves and Their Controllers,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series, Vol. 149, No. 1, 2009, Article ID 012031.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.