Share This Article:

Extraction Method and Determination of Sudan I Present in Sunset Yellow FCF by Isocratic High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:439KB) PP. 570-575
DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2012.38075    4,651 Downloads   8,157 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

A method to extract and analyze Sudan I present in Sunset Yellow FCF (SYF) products was developed and validated. The method included the simple extraction of Sudan I from the SYF product using water, acetonitrile, and ethyl acetate and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis with isocratic elution using acetonitrile:water (7:3) with a photodiode array detector at 485 nm. This method was found to remove most of the excess SYF colorant and other impurities before injection to the HPLC instrument, making it easy to maintain precision control in routine laboratory tests for Sudan I in the SYF colorant. The detection limit of Sudan I in SYF products was 0.2 μg/g. A survey conducted to determine Sudan I in 13 commercial SYF samples from Japanese manufacturers from 1970 to 2010 showed that the levels of Sudan I ranged from 0.3 to 1.9 μg/g in products manufactured from 1970 to 1996 and were below the limit of detection in products manufactured after 2005.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

C. Tatebe, T. Ohtsuki, N. Otsuki, H. Kubota, K. Sato, H. Akiyama and Y. Kawamura, "Extraction Method and Determination of Sudan I Present in Sunset Yellow FCF by Isocratic High-Performance Liquid Chromatography," American Journal of Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 3 No. 8, 2012, pp. 570-575. doi: 10.4236/ajac.2012.38075.

References

[1] B. R. Petigara and A. L. Scher, “Direct Method for Determination of Sudan I in FD&C Yellow No.6 and D&C Orange No.4 by Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography,” Journal of AOAC International, Vol. 90, No. 5, 2007, pp. 1373-1378.
[2] International Agency for Research on Cancer, “IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans,” Vol. 8, 1975, pp. 225-231. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol8/volume8.pdf
[3] Y. Uematsu, M. Ogimoto, J. Kabashima, K. Suzuki and K. Ito, “Fast Cleanup Method for the Analysis of Sudan I-IV and Para Red in Various Food and Paprika Color (Oleoresin) by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography/ Diode Array Detection: Focus on Removal of Fat and Oil as Fatty Acid Me-thyl Esters Prepared by Transesterification of Acylglycerols,” Journal of AOAC International, Vol. 90, No. 2, 2007, pp. 437-445.
[4] C. Ju, Y. Tang, H. Fan and J. Chen, “Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Using a Specific Monoclonal Antibody as a New Tool to Detect Sudan Dye and Para Red,” Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 621, No. 2, 2008, pp. 200-206. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2008.05.055
[5] Y. Fan, M. Chen, C. Shentu, F. El-Sepai, K. Wang, Y. Zhu and M. Ye, “Ionic Liquid Extraction of Para Red and Sudan dyes from Chili Powder, Chili Oil and Food Additive Combined with High Performance Liquid Chromatography,” Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 650, No. 1, 2009, pp. 65-69. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2009.03.025
[6] C. Zhao, T. Zhao, X. Liu and H. Zhang, “A Novel Molecularly Imprinted Polymer for Simultaneous Extraction and Determination of Sudan Dyes by On-Line Solid Phase Extraction and High Performance Liquid Chromatography,” Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 1217, No. 45, 2010, pp. 6995-7002. doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2010.09.005
[7] EU Commission Directive 2006/33/EC Official Journal of European Union, L82/10-13, 2006. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2006:082:0010:0013:en:pdf
[8] Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), “Evaluation of Certain Food Additives, Sixty-Nine Report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives,” 2008, pp. 68-69. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/trs/WHO_TRS_952_eng.pdf
[9] Online Edition, “Combined Compendium of Food Additive Specifications”. http://www.fao.org/ag/agn/jecfa-additives/specs/monograph11/additive-450-m11.pdf
[10] Japan Cosmetic Industry Association, “Houtei Shikiso Handbook (Certified Colorants Handbook),” Tokyo, 2004, pp. 489-495.
[11] S. Tsuji, I. Matsumura, Y. Nakamura and Y. Tonogai, “Studies on Separation and De-termination of Subsidiary Colors, Raw Materials and Interme-diates in Food Yellow No.5 (Sunset Yellow FCF) by HPLC,” Shokuhin Eiseigaku Zasshi (Food Hygiene and Safety Science), Vol. 41, No. 6, 2000, pp. 357-363. doi:10.3358/shokueishi.41.357

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.