Share This Article:

The Reasons Why Women Do Not Participate in the Papsmear Screening and Testing Program in Sweden

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:64KB) PP. 31-37
DOI: 10.4236/asm.2012.23006    3,728 Downloads   7,794 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Cervical cancer is the second most common type of cancer among women worldwide. In Sweden cervical cancer is the fifteenth most common cancer among women and accounts for 1.9 percent of all female cancers. The Swedish Pap smear screening program is enabling early detection of cell changes in order that treatment may be administered to prevent the development of cancerous cells. There are approximately four hundred and fifty cases of cervical cancer detected each year in Sweden and of these cases, approximately seventy five percent occur in women who do not participate in the screening and testing program. The purpose of this study was to illustrate and examine the reasons why women did not participate in the program even though they had received a notice that they had an appointment for a Pap smear test. In the study fourteen women from a district in the west of Sweden were interviewed. In order to analyse the interviews a qualitative content analysis according to Lundman and Graneheim was used. The analysis resulted in the development of three categories which were identified as communication, treatment and subterfuge (reasons or excuses for not participating). The theme of the study was the professional treatment of the women’s conditions. In the interviews the women emphasize the importance of professional treatment that is administered with respectful and sympathetic care throughout the whole healthcare system regardless of where and when the visit was conducted. Efficient organization and clear communication would minimize the inconvenience for the women during their visit.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

A. Adolfsson, K. Granevik and K. Paulson, "The Reasons Why Women Do Not Participate in the Papsmear Screening and Testing Program in Sweden," Advances in Sexual Medicine, Vol. 2 No. 3, 2012, pp. 31-37. doi: 10.4236/asm.2012.23006.

References

[1] The National Board of Health and Welfare [Socialstyrelsen] Special conditions in health care [Speciella forhallanden I halso-och sjukvarden], 2002, pp.106-116.
[2] The National Board of Health and Welfare [Socialstyrelsen]. Cancer of the figures expository facts about cancer [Cancer i siffror Popularvetenskapliga fakta om cancer], 2009. [Assessed 13-05-10] http://www.cancerfonden.se/Global/Dokument/omcancer/cancer_i_siffror/Cancer_i_siffror_2009.pdf.
[3] P. Bistoletti, K. Sennfalt., K. A health economic model study of primary screening for cervical cancer with Pap smear and HPV DNA testing, [En halsoekonomisk modellstudie av primarscreening mot livmoderhalscancer med cellprov och HPV DNA-test]. CMT rapport, Linkoping University. Vol. 1, 2008
[4] C. Crum. Should the bethesda system terminology be used in diagnostic surgical pathology? International journal of gynecological pathology, Vol. 22, 2002, pp. 5-12.
[5] B. Strander, A. Andersson-Ellstrom, I. Milsom, T. Radberg, W. Ryd. Liquid-based cytology Versus Conventional papanicolaou Smear in an organized screening program. Cancer, Vol. 111, No. 5, 2007, pp. 285-291.
[6] B. Andrae, L. Kemetli, P. Sparén, L. Silfverdal, B. Strander, W. Ryd, J. Dillner, S. Tornberg. Screening-preventable cervical cancer risks: Evidence from a nationwide audit in Sweden. Journal national cancer institute, Vol. 100, No.7, 2008, pp. 622-629.
[7] J. Dillner. Screening-preventable cervical cancer risks: Evidence from nationwide audit in Sweden. Journal of the National cancer institute, 2008, 100 622-629.2008 WWW [Assessed 16-05-10]. http://ki.se/ki/jsp/polopoly.jsp;jsessionid=azpVBpLnE0MdTbZoO4?l=sv&d=6203&a=55868&newsdep=6203
[8] M.G. Oscarsson, B.E. Wijma, E.G. Benzein. Nonattendance in a cervical cancer screening program-what happens if women′s requirements are met? Health care for women international, Vol. 29, No. 2, 2008, pp. 183-197.
[9] B. Wijma, K. Siwe. The empowerment gyn chair, theory. empirical and opportunities. [Empowerment i gynstolen. Teori. Empiri och mojligheter]. Women's Scholarly journals Vol. 2-3, 2002, pp. 61-73.
[10] B. Wijma. Prevalence of emotional, physical, and sexual abuse. A Nordic, cross-sectional, multicentre study among patients visiting gynaecological clinics. Faculty of Health Sciences, Linkoping University, 2003.
[11] K. Eriksson. Health hibernation, [Halsans ide]. Almqvist och Wiksell, Stockholm, 1993.
[12] A. Antonovsky. Health mystery, [Halsans mysterium]. Natur och Kultur, Stockholm, 1991.
[13] U.H. Graneheim, B. Lundman. Qualitative content analysis in nursing research: Concepts, procedures and measures to achieve trustworthiness. Nurse education today, Vol.24, No. 2, 2004, pp. 105-112.
[14] S. Kvale. The qualitative research interview, [Den kvalitativa forskningsintervjun]. Studentlitteratur, Lund, 1997.
[15] K. Blomberg. From invitations to follow women's experiences of participating or not participating in cervical cancer screening. [Fran inbjudan till uppfoljning Kvinnors erfarenheter av att delta eller inte delta i cervixcancerscreening]. Universitet service US-AB, Stockholm, 2009.
[16] M. Oscarsson, B. Wijma, E. Benzein. I do not need to…I do not want to…I do not give it priority…”-why women choose not to attend cervical cancer screening. Health expectations, Vol. 11, 2007, pp. 26-34.
[17] M. Idestrom, I. Milsom, A. Andersson-Ellstrom. Knowledge and attitudes about the Pap smear screening program: a population-based study of women aged 20-59 years. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, Vol. 81, No. 10, 2002, pp. 962-967.
[18] K. Dahlberg. Health Suffering-the needless suffering, [Vardlidande-det onodiga lidandet]. Vard I Norden, Vol. 22, No. 1, 2002, pp. 4-8.
[19] K. Swahnberg. Prevalence of gender violence. Studies of four kinds of abuse in five Nordic countries. Doctoral dissertation. Akademi tryck AB, Edsbruk, 2003.
[20] S. Eaker. Optimization of compliance in epidemiologic research and diseasemprevention. With special emphasis on Pap smear screening. Doctoral dissertation, Karolinska institute, Stockholm, 2003.
[21] S. Eaker, H-P. Adami, P. Sparén. Reasons why women do not attend screening for cervical cancer; A population-based study in Sweden. Preventive medicine, Vol. 32, No. 6, 2001, pp. 482-491.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2019 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.