Share This Article:

Opium withdrawal and some blood biochemical factors in addicts' individuals

Abstract Full-Text HTML Download Download as PDF (Size:149KB) PP. 167-170
DOI: 10.4236/abc.2012.22020    4,203 Downloads   8,488 Views   Citations

ABSTRACT

Objective: One of the common misinterpretation be- liefs in some societies (especially eastern communities) is the using of opium can reduce serum glucose and lipids. Opium is a derivative from a plant family called Papaveracea and contains almost 80 types of alkaloids. Drug addiction causes physiological dependency and its withdrawal lead to some disorders. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of opium consumption and its withdrawal on some blood biochemical factors in addicted people. Methods: We enrolled fifty-six opium addicted people according to the especial criteria to this study. Biochemical blood parameter levels such as fasting blood sugar (FBS), urea, Creatinine (Cr), Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alanine transaminase (ALT) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzymes levels were measured and urine analysis was also performed before and 3 months after withdrawal. Data were analyzed by using SPSS software version 18 and a P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: our finding showed that opium withdrawal reduces FBS and increases AST but these changes were not significant. Nevertheless opium withdrawal significantly increased blood urea level (P < 0.0001). We didn’t find any significant difference in Cr, ALP, AST and Urea specific gravity (SG). Conclusion: According to the results of the current study we can concluded that opium increases FBS, which is in contrast to the most previous studies and withdrawal has opposite effects.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Cite this paper

Mahmoodi, M. , Hosseini-Zijoud, S. , Hosseini, J. , Sayyadi, A. , Hajizadeh, M. , Hassanshahi, G. and Hashemi, B. (2012) Opium withdrawal and some blood biochemical factors in addicts' individuals. Advances in Biological Chemistry, 2, 167-170. doi: 10.4236/abc.2012.22020.

References

[1] Bashardoost, N. and Tirani, M. (2005). Prevalence of addiction in males: Isfahan 2003. ARYA Journal, 1, 106- 108.
[2] Frick, S., Kramell, R. and Schmidt, J., et al. (2005) Comparative qualitative and quantitative determination of alkaloids in narcotic and condiment Papaver somniferum cultivars. Journal of Natural Products, 68, 666-673. doi:10.1021/np0496643
[3] Frick, S., Kramell, R. and Kutchana, T.M. (2007) Metabolic engineering with a morphine biosynthetic P450 in opium poppy surpasses breeding. Metabolic Engineering, 9, 169-176. doi:10.1016/j.ymben.2006.10.004
[4] Karam, G.., Reisi, M. and Kaseb, A.A., et al. (2004) Effect’s opium addiction on some serum factors in addicts with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Addiction Biology, 9, 53-58. doi:10.1080/13556210410001674095
[5] Gutstien, H.B. and Akil, H. (2006) Opioid analgesics. In: Brunton, L.L., Lazo, J.S. and Parker, K.L., Eds., The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 11th Edition, McGrow-Hill, New York, 547-584.
[6] Zacherl, J., Thein, E. and Stangl, M., et al. (2003) The influence of periarterial papaverine application on intraoperative renal function and blood flow during laparoscopic donor nephrectomyin a pig model. Surgical Endoscopy, 17, 1231-1236. doi:10.1007/s00464-002-8835-5
[7] Landen, J.W., Hau, V. and Wang, M., et al. (2004) Noscapine crosses the blood brain barrier and and inhibits glioblastoma growth. Clinical Cancer Research, 10, 5187- 5201. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-04-0360
[8] Lesile, J.K. and Taborsky, G.Y. (1986) Rele of pancreatic somatostatinin determing glucagon response to arginine and morphine. American Journal of physiology, 252, 750- 755.
[9] Ipp, E., Dobbs, R. and Unger, R.H. (1978) Morphine and beta-endorphin influence the secretion of the endocrine pancreas. Nature, 276, 190-191. doi:10.1038/276190a0
[10] Esposti, D., Esposti, G. and Lissoni, P., et al. (1998) Action of morphine on melatonin release in the rat. Journal of Pineal Research, 5, 35-39. doi:10.1111/j.1600-079X.1988.tb00766.x
[11] Pinelli, A., Cighetti, G. and Trivulzio S. (2008) Plasma ma- londialdehyde levels and opiate withdrawal signs observed in rats treated with morphine plus naloxone: effects of α-lipoic acid administration. Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology, 22, 439-445. doi:10.1111/j.1472-8206.2008.00612.x
[12] Singhal, P.C., Pamarthi, M. and Shah, R., et al. (1994) Morphine stimulates superoxide formation by glomerular mesangial cells. Inflammation, 18, 293-299. doi:10.1007/BF01534270
[13] Cemek, M., Büyükokuro?lu, M.E. and Hazman, O., et al. (2011) Antioxidant enzyme and element status in heroin addiction or heroin withdrawal in rats: effect of melatonin and Vitamin E plus Se. Biological Trace Element Research, 139, 41-54. doi:10.1007/s12011-010-8634-0
[14] Cemek, M., Büyükokuro?lu, M.E. and Yürümez, Y., et al. (2010) Tissue trace and major element levels in organophosphate insecticide fenthion (Lebaycid?) toxicity in rats: prophylactic and therapeutic effect of exogenous melatonin. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 73, 206-212. doi:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2009.09.008
[15] Azod, L., Rashidi, M. and Afkhami-Ardekani, M., et al. (2008) Effect of opium addictionon diabetes. American Journal of Drug Alcohol Abuse, 34, 383-388. doi:10.1080/00952990802122580
[16] Sadeghian, S., Boroumand, M. and Sotoudeh-Anvari, M., et al. (2009) Effect of opium on glucose metabolism and lipid profiles in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Endokrynol Pol, 60, 258-262.
[17] Kharchenko, N.K., Synyts’kyi, V.N. and Kovtun, T.V. (2001) Comparative analysis of the effects of alcoholism and opium addiction on liver function. Fiziol Zh, 47, 81- 86.
[18] Hussein, O.A., Gefen, Y. and Zidan, J.M., et al. (2007) LDL oxidation is associated with increased blood hemoglobin A1c levels in diabetic patients. Clinica Chimica Acta, 377, 114-18. doi:10.1016/j.cca.2006.09.002
[19] Divsalar, K., Haghpanah, T. and Afarinesh, M., et al. (2010) Opium and heroin alter biochemical parameters of human’s serum. American Journal of Drug Alcohol Abuse, 36, 135-139.
[20] Helmst?dter, A., (2007) Antidiabetic drugs used in Europe prior to the discovery of insulin. Pharmazie, 62, 717-720.
[21] Jerome, H.J. (1980) Drug addiction and drug abuse. In: Goodman, L.S. and Gilman, A., Eds., The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 6th Edition, Macmillan Pu-blishing Co Inc., New York, 535-584.
[22] Shi, J., Li, S.X. and Zhang, X.L., et al. (2009) Time-dependent neuroendocrine alterations and drug craving during the first month of abstinence in heroin addicts. American Journal of Drug Alcohol Abuse, 35, 267- 272. doi:10.1080/00952990902933878
[23] Díaz-Flores, E.J.F. and Díaz-Flores, E.F., et al. (2004) Application of linear discriminant analysis to the biochemical and haematological differentiation of opiate addicts from healthy subjects: a case-control study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 58, 449-455.
[24] Shavakhy, A., Sadeghi, A. and Minakary, M. (2010) Opium consumption and risk of liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B and C. Journal of Isfahan Medical School, 28, 451-458.
[25] Karam, G., Rashidinejad, H. and Aghaee, M., et al. (2008) Opium can differently alter blood glucose, sodium and potassium in male and female rats. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 21, 180-184.

  
comments powered by Disqus

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

Creative Commons License

This work and the related PDF file are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.